Electoral Politics.txt

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divyanshu_bali
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Electoral Politics.txt
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2011-02-07 10:18:25
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Electoral Politics
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Electoral Politics Class 9 NCERT Pol. Science
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    • Discuss the 1987 Haryana State Election.
    • The state had been ruled by Congress since 1982. Nyaya Yudh movement led by Devi Lal the leader of Like Dal to waive the loans of small businessmen and farmers led him to winning the elections and becoming the Chief Minister of Haryana.
  1. Why do we need Elections ?
    In a large community like a country, it is not possible for all the people to sit together Amanda take decisions. Therefore in most democracies people vote via representatives. Hence, elections provide a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals and change them.
  2. What are the choices made by people in elections ?
    • 1.They choose who will make laws for them.
    • 2. They choose who will form the major government and take all the major decisions.
    • 3. They choose which party's policies will guide the government.
  3. Why makes an election Democratic?
    • 1. Everyone should have one vote and each vote should have equal value.
    • 2. Parties ad Candidates should be free to contest in elections.
    • 3. Elections should be held every few intervals.
    • 4. Candidate voted by people should be elected.
    • 5. Elections should be conducted in agree an fair elections.
  4. Discuss the de-merits of electoral politics ?
    • 1. Creates a sense of disunity and factionalism.
    • 2. Parties and leaders often level allegations against one and another.
    • 3. Parties and candidates often use duty tricks to win elections.
    • 4. Electoral fights does not allow for long-term policies to be formed.
  5. What is the aim of Electoral Competition ?
    It provides incentives to political parties an leaders. Sets up a system where political leaders are rewarded for serving the people and punished for not doing so.
  6. What kind of system of representation is present in India?
    Our country follows an area based system of representation. The country is divided into different areas for the purpose of election. There. These are called electoral constituencies. Voters who love in one area elect the representative of that area.
  7. Who are MP's and MLA's and how are they elected?
    For Lok Sabha elections, the country is divided into 543 constituencies. Each elected member is called a Member of Parliament. Each parilamentary constituency has several assembly constituencies within. Of which each elected member is called Member Of Legislative Assembly.
  8. Explain in short the system of Panchayat and Municipal Elections?
    Each village or town is divided into several wards. Each Ward elects one members of the village or the local urban body.
  9. What is the system of seats?
    Sometimes each constituency is considered as seat. So if a party won in 60 constituencies then it has 60 seats or 60 MLA's in the state assembly.
  10. Why are some constituencies reserved?
    Our constitution makers were aware that certain weaker sections of the society may not stand a good chance. As they have the resources and contacts which the other majority sections of the society may have. To stop this, they reserved some constituencies for the SC and ST. In these constituencies only those from the weaker sections can stand for elections. 79 seats are reserved in Lok Sabha for SC and 41 seats for ST.
  11. What is electoral roll or voters list?
    In a Democratic election, the lust of those who are eligible to vote I'md prepared much before the elections and given to everyone. It is the responsibility of the govt. to enter the names of all the eligible people, i.e those 18 years and above in the voters list. Revision of this list happens every 5 years.
  12. What are the conditions for the nomination of a candidate ?
    • Anyone above 25 years has the right to vote. Excluding some extreme criminals. Every candidate has to fill a nomination form and give a security deposit. He/She also has o make a declaration of:
    • 1. Serious criminal cases pending against him/her.
    • 2. Details if assets and liabilities of the candidates candidate and his/her family.
    • 3. Education qualifications of the candidate.
  13. What are election campaigns? Explain in detail?
    The main purpose of election campaign is to give the people a chance to choose the representatives, government and the policies they prefer. In our country such campaigns take place foe a two-week period between the announcement of the final list of the candidates and the date if polling.
  14. What happens in an election campaign?
    Candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and parties mobilise their supporters. During this period, TV and Newspapers are full with election related stories and debates. But the preparation for all this starts months before the campaign period.
  15. Discuss some slogans given by parties during previous elections?
    • 1. Congress led by Indira Gandhi gae the slogan: Garibi Hatao in the Lok Sabha elections of 1971. The party promised to reorient the policies of the government so as to remove poverty.
    • 2. Janata Party said: Save Democracy in 1977 Lok Sabha elections. They promised to info excesses committed during the emergency & restore civil liberties.
    • 3. Land To The Tiller used by Left Front in West Bengal Assembly elections held in 1977.
  16. What is prohibited in election campaign ?
    • • Bribe or Threaten Voters
    • • Use Government resources for election campaign
    • • Spend more that Rs. 25 lakh in a constituency for Lok Sabha elections & 10 lakh in a Assembly elections.
  17. What does the Model Code Of Conduct say?
    • According yo this no party or leader can:
    • • Use any place of worship for Election Propoganda
    • • Use government vehicles, aircraft's and officials for elections.
  18. How does polling and counting of votes take place?
    Anyone who has his name on the voters list can gi and vote to his nearest polling booth. An gent if each candidate is allowed to sit inside polling Booth and see that polling takes place in a fair way. Earlier people voted through putting a stamp on ballot paper. Now a days, Electronic Voting Machines (EVM). After a few days of elections the EVM are taken to a secure place and the results are counted.

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