230 exam 1

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230 exam 1
2011-02-07 12:56:58
B230 exam

theories for 230 exam
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  1. activity theory
    remainging occupied and involved is necessary to a satisfying late-life
  2. disengagement theory
    gradual withdrawal from society and relationships serves to maintain social equilibrium and promote internal reflection
  3. subculture theory
    the elderly prefer to segregate from society in an aging subculture sharing loss of status and societal negativity regarding the aged.
  4. continuity theory
    personality influences roles and life satisfaction and remains consistent throughtout life. Past coping patterns recur as older adults adjust to declines
  5. age stratification theory
    society is stratified by age groups that are the basis for acquiring resources, roles, status, and deference from others.
  6. person-environment-fit theory
    function is affected by ego strength, mobility, health, cognition, sensory perception, and the environment. competency changes one's ability to adapt to environmenal demands
  7. gerontranscendence theory
    the elderly transform form a materialistic/rational perspective toward oneness with the universe. Successful transformation includes an outward focus, accpeting impending death, substantive relationships, intergenerational connectedness and unity with the universe
  8. human needs theory
    five basic needs motivate human behavior in a lifelong process toward need fulfillment
  9. individualism theory
    personality consists of an ego and personal and collective unconsciousness that views life from a personal or external perspective. Older adults search for life meaning and adapt to functional and social losses.
  10. life-course/life span development theory
    life stages are predictable and structured by roles, relationships, values, and goals. Persons adapt to changing roles and relationships.
  11. selective optimization with compensation theory
    individuals cope w/ aging losses through activity/role selection, optimization, and compensation. critical life points are morbidity, mortality, and quality of life.
  12. exogenous sources of free radicals
    tobacco smoke, pesticides, organic solvents, radiation, ozone, selected meds
  13. free radical theory
    membranes, nucleic acids, and proteins are damaged by free radicals which causes cellular injury and aging
  14. orgel/error theory
    errors in DNA and RNA synthesis occur with aging
  15. wear and tear theory
    cells wear out and cannot function with aging
  16. connective tissue/cross-link theory
    with aging, proteins impede metabolic processes and cause trouble with gettin nutrients to cells and removing cellular waste products
  17. stochastic theories
    based on random events that cause cellular damage that accumulate as the organism ages

    theories; free radical,orgel/error, wear and tear, connective, cross-link
  18. nonstochastic theories
    based on genetically programmed events that cause cellular damage that accelerates aging of the organisms

    theories; programmed, gene/biological clock, neuroendocrine, immunological
  19. programmed theory
    cells divide until they are no longer able to and this triggers apoptosis or cell death
  20. gene/biological clock theory
    cells have a genetically programmed aging code
  21. neuroendocrine theory
    problems with the hypothalamus-pituitary-endocrine gland feedback system cause disease; increased insulin growth factor accelerates aging
  22. immunological theory
    aging is due to faulty immunological function, which is linked to general well-being
  23. functional consequences theory
    environmental and biopsychosocial consequences impact functioning. Nursing's role is risk reduction to minimize age-age associated disability in order to enhance safety and quality of living
  24. theory of thriving
    failure to thrive results from a discord between the individual and his/her environment or relationships. Nurses ID and modify factos that contribute to disharmony among these elements
  25. Erikson’s theory
  26. 1. Infancy; trust vs. mistrust; faith and hope
    • 2. Toddler stage; autonomy vs. shame/doubt; self-control and willpower
    • 3. Preschool stage; initiative vs. guilt; direction and purpose
    • 4. School age; industry vs. inferiority; method and competence
    • 5. Adolescence; ID vs. role confusion; devotion and fidelity
    • 6. Young adulthood; intimacy vs. isolation; affiliation and love
    • 7. Middle adulthood; generativity vs. stagnation; production and care
    • 8. Older adulthood; ego integrity vs. despair; renunciation and wisdom
  27. Piajet’s theory
  28. 1. Sensorimotor; B-2yrs; baby understands the world in terms of what they can do w/ an object
    • 2. Preoperational; 2-7yrs; the child is starts to use images, words and actions that stand for something else. Fastasy, or pretend play also starts to appear in this stage as well.
    • 3. Concrete operations; 7-11yrs; logic, inductive and deductive reasoning, language perfected
    • 4. Formal operations; 11-15yrs; true logical thought, manipulation of abstract concepts emerge, morality
  29. Vygotsky's theory
  30. Zone of proximal development-distance between the actual and potential dev. Level. Children are pulled towards new learning through their interaction w/ others and the environment. The guidance giving by others is referred to as “scaffolding”
  31. Kholberg's theory
  32. 1. Preconventional; avoiding punishment, gaining reward
    • 2. Conventional; gaining approval, avoiding disapproval
    • 3. Postconventional; agree upon rights, personal moral standards, justice
  33. Gilligan's theory
  34. 1. Preconventional; what is practical to others and best for self, realizing connections to others; individual survival
    • 2. Conventional; sacrifices wants and needs to fulfill others’ wants and needs;self-sacrifice is goodness
    • 3. Postconventional; moral equal of self and others; principle of nonviolence, do not hurt self or others