GIC Test 1

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GIC Test 1
2011-02-07 13:23:48

History of Graphic Design
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  1. Cuneiform
    • writing on clay mud tablets
    • Sumerians in the city of Uruk
    • earliest for of writing - 3100 BC
  2. Uncials
    • 2nd century AD - Greece
    • develops more rounded writing style, easier to read
    • written between guidelines called “uncias” (the Roman inch)
  3. Xylography
    • relief printing from a raised surface
    • originated in Asia
    • (wood block printing)
  4. Typography
    term for printing with independent, movable, and reusable bits of metal / wood, each of which has a raised letterform on one face
  5. Block Print
    • (wood) block printing, originated in China
    • 1st woodblock playing + devotional cards in Europe
  6. Block Book
    • a book made by wood block printing?!
    • ex: the German Illustrated Book, ars memorandi
  7. Johann Gutenberg
    • (Mainz, Germany) father of typography
    • made the first printing press
  8. Ligature
    2 characters designed to work together as a single unit
  9. Fust & Schoeffer
    • became the most important printing firm in the world (1450's)
    • Fust was the businessman
    • Schoeffer was the artist / designer, possibly the first typeface designer
  10. Copperplate Engraving
    • started by an unidentified artist called the Master of the Playing Cards - who was linked to Gutenberg by time/place/style
    • Drawing is scratched into a smooth metal plate, ink is applied into the depressions, the flat surface is wiped clean, and paper is pressed against the plate to receive the ink image.
  11. Incunabula
    • Latin for “cradle” or “baby linen”
    • name for books printed from Gutenberg’s invention of typography until the end of the fifteenth century
  12. Broadside
    • technically, a single leaf of paper printed on one side only
    • "broadsheet" is when both sides are printed, however, these terms are often used interchangeably
  13. William Caxton
    • set up a printing press in Bruges
    • his translation of “Recuyell of the Histories of Troy” became the first typographic English language book (1475)
  14. Fleurons
    printer’s flowers, cast decorative elements
  15. Romain du Roi
    • typeface of the king; French king Louis XIV (1692)
    • has increased contrast between thick and thin strokes, sharp horizontal serifs, and an even balance to each letterform
    • Imprimerie Royale was the royal printing office est. 1640
  16. Transitional (Roman Type)
    • the evolution between old style and modern typefaces
    • ex: Baskerville
  17. Rococo
    • 1730s - height of Rococo
    • (fanciful French art/architecture, floral, intricate, pastels)
    • Fourneir le Jeune, copperplate engraving
    • ends with the French revolution and it is replaced by Neo-Classicism
  18. Fournier le Jeune
    • Manuel Typographique, 1764 and 1768
    • type manual is a masterwork fo rococo design
    • his work loses social relevance because he dies before the Revolution
  19. Bodoni
    • Italian son of indigent printer
    • runs the official press of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
    • influenced by Fournier, brilliant sharpness and contrast = modern style
    • standardization of units was a concept of the emerging industrial era of the machine
    • precise, measurable, repeatable forms.
  20. Modern Type
    • the term modern, which defines a new category of roman type, was first used by Fournier le Jeune in his Manuel Typographique to describe the design trends that culminated in Bodoni’s mature work
    • condensed letterforms, lighter typographic tone and texture
  21. Neoclassicism
    • Rococo ends with the French revolution and it is replaced by Neo-Classicism
    • Giambattista Bodoni, title page from Saggio tipografico (Typographic Essay, 1771) reflects 18th century neo-classical style -- what we will call modern style
    • extreme contrast of thick and thin.