Social Psychology

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Social Psychology
2011-02-07 14:51:33

Psychology 1020
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  1. Social Psychology
    A science that studies how individuals think about, influence, and relate to one another.
  2. Hindsight Bias
    (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon) the tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out.
  3. Arson's Law
    "People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy."
  4. The Scientific Method
    A techinque for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, and/or correcting previous knowledge.
  5. Confound:
    A lurking variable that is "hidden" variable in a statistical or research model that affects the variables in question, but it is not known or acknowledged, and thus (potentially) distorts the data.
  6. Social Desirability Bias:
    The inclination to present oneself in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others.
  7. Response Set:
    Tendency to answer questions on a survey in a way that's unrelated to question content.
  8. Spotlight Effect:
    The belier that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior then they actually are.
  9. Cocktail Party Effect:
    The ability to pick a personally relevant stimulus out of a complex environment.
  10. Self Concept:
    An individual's overall beliefs about his/her own attitudes.
  11. Self-Perception Theory:
    When internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior.
  12. Social Comparison Theory:
    People evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others.
  13. Self-Esteem
    A person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.
  14. Self-Serving Bias:
    The tendency to perceive oneself favorably.
  15. Self-Inflation
    Seeing the self favorably on subjective, socially desirable traits and better than others in terms of the traits.
  16. Self-Handicapping:
    A strategy in which people create obstacles to success so that potential failure can be blamed on these external circumstances.
  17. Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRG):
    To increase self-esteem by assocating with others who are successful.
  18. Downward Social Comparison:
    The defensive tendency to compare ourselves with others who are worse off than we are.
  19. Self-Promotion:
    A strategy that focuses on making other people think that oneself is competent or good in some way.
  20. Self-Schemas:
    All the information, images and memories we associate with ourselves.
  21. False Consensus Effect:
    The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people share our opinions, attitudes, and behaviors.
  22. Social Perception:
    How people form impressions of and make inferences about other people and events in the social world.
  23. Intuition:
    A decision making shortcut in which we rely on instinct rather than objective information.
  24. Trait Negativity Bias:
    The tendency for negative information to weigh more heavily than positive information.
  25. Overconfidence Phenomenon:
    In social judgments, people are more confident than they are correct.
  26. Attribution Theory:
    How we explain the behavior of others, especially unexpected, ambiguous, and negative behavior.
  27. Correspondent Inference Theory:
    Proposes that people infer whether a person's behavior is caused by internal dispositions of the person by looking at various factors related to that act.
  28. Fundamental Attribution Error:
    The tendency of observers to understimate the impact of external (situational) factors and to overestimate the role of internal (dispositional) factors in causing another person's behavior.
  29. Actor-Observer Bias:
    The tendency for actors to attribute their own actions to situational factors, whereas observers tend to attribute the same actions to stable personality dispositions of actors.
  30. Base-Rate Fallacy:
    An error in which people ignore the numerical frequency of events in estimating their likelihood.
  31. Availability Heuristic:
    A mental shortcut in which we make a judgement based on the ease with which we can bring something to mind.
  32. Attitude Heuristic:
    A shortcut way of making decisions by assigning objects to either a favorable or unfavorable attitude.