Anthropology Terms Test1.txt

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Anthropology Terms Test1.txt
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Anthropology Terms
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Anthropology Terms for Test 1
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  1. Absolute or Chronometric Dating
    In archaeology and paleoanthropology, dates for archaeological materials based on solar years, centuries, or other units of absolute time.
  2. Anthropology
    The study of humankind in all times and places.
  3. Applied Anthropology
    The use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client.
  4. Archaeology
    The study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data.
  5. Artifact
    Any object fashioned or altered by humans.
  6. Bioarchaeology
    The archaeological study of human remains emphasizing the preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton.
  7. Biocultural
    Focusing on the interaction of biology and culture.
  8. Cultural Anthropology
    Also known as social or sociocultural anthropology. The study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings. It focuses on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures.
  9. Cultural Resource Management
    A branch of archaeology concerned with survey and/or excavation of archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development and policy surrounding protection of cultural resources.
  10. Culture
    A society's shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior.
  11. Culture-bound
    Theories about the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one's own culture.
  12. Datum Point
    The starting, or reference, point for a grid system.
  13. Discourse
    An extended communication on a particular subject.
  14. Doctrine
    An assertion of opinion or belief formally handed down by an authority as true and indisputable.
  15. Eliciting Devices
    Activities and objects used to draw out individuals and encourage them to recall and share information.
  16. Empirical
    Based on observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith.
  17. Ethnocentrism
    The belief that the ways of one's own culture are the only proper ones.
  18. Ethnography
    A detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork.
  19. Ethnology
    The study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic accounts and developing anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or similarities occur among groups.
  20. Fieldwork
    The term anthropologists use for on-location research.
  21. Forensic Anthropology
    Subfield of applied physical anthropology that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.
  22. Formal Interview
    A structured question-answer session carefully notated as it occurs and based on prepared questions.
  23. Fossil
    The preserved remains of plants and animals that lived in the past.
  24. Globalization
    Worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious diseases.
  25. Grid System
    A system for recording data in three dimensions from an archaeological excavation.
  26. Holistic Perspective
    A fundamental principle of anthropology, that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence.
  27. Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)
    A vast collection of cross-indexed ethnographic, biocultural, and archaeological data catalogued by cultural characteristics and geographic location. Archived in about 300 libraries (on microfiche or online).
  28. Hypothesis
    A tentative explanation of the relation between certain phenomena.
  29. Informal Interview
    An unstructured, open-ended conversation in everyday life.
  30. Informed Consent
    Formal recorded agreement to participate in the research. Federally mandated for all research in the United States and Europe.
  31. Key Consultants
    Members of the society being studied who provide information that helps the researchers understand the meaning of what they observe. Early anthropologists referred to such individuals as informants.
  32. Linguistic Anthropology
    The study of human languages.
  33. Material Culture
    The durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures, and art.
  34. Medical Anthropology
    A specialization in anthropology that brings theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human health and disease.
  35. Middens
    A refuse or garbage disposal area in an archaeological site.
  36. Molecular Anthropology
    A branch of biological anthropology that uses genetic and biochemical techniques to test hypotheses about human evolution, adaptation, and variation.
  37. Paleoanthropology
    The study of the origins and predecessors of the present human species.
  38. Participant Observation
    In ethnography, the technique of learning a people's culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time.
  39. Physical Anthropology
    Also known as biological anthropology. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms.
  40. Primatology
    The study of living and fossil primates.
  41. Relative Dating
    In archaeology and paleoanthropology, designating an event, object, or fossil as being older or younger than another.
  42. Soil Marks
    Stains that show up on the surface of recently plowed fields that reveal an archaeological site.
  43. Theory
    In science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data.
  44. Adaptation
    A series of beneficial adjustments to the environment.
  45. Alleles
    Alternate forms of a single gene.
  46. Analogies
    In biology, structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to similar function, without sharing a common developmental pathway or structure.
  47. Chromatid
    One half of the "X" shape of chromosomes visible once replication is complete. Sister chromatids are exact copies of each other.
  48. Chromosomes
    In the cell nucleus, the structures visible during cellular division containing long strands of DNA combined with a protein.
  49. Clines
    Gradual changes in the frequency of an allele or trait over space.
  50. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid. The genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose base structure directs the synthesis of proteins.
  51. Dominance
    The ability of one allele for a trait to mask the presence of another allele.
  52. Evolution
    Changes in allele frequencies in populations. Also known as microevolution.
  53. Founder Effects
    A particular form of genetic drift deriving from a small founding population not possessing all the alleles present in the original population.
  54. Gene Flow
    The introduction of alleles from the gene pool of one population into that of another.
  55. Gene Pool
    All the genetic variants possessed by members of a population.
  56. Genes
    Portions of DNA molecules that direct the synthesis of specific proteins.
  57. Genetic Drift
    Chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population.
  58. Genome
    The complete structure sequence of DNA for a species.
  59. Genotype
    The alleles possessed for a particular trait.
  60. Genus, Genera (pl.)
    In the system of plant and animal classification, a group of like species.
  61. Hemoglobin
    The protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells.
  62. Heterozygous
    Refers to a chromosome pair that bears different alleles for a single gene.
  63. Homologies
    In biology, structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development, though they may possess different functions.
  64. Homozygous
    Refers to a chromosome pair that bears identical alleles for a single gene.
  65. Law of Independent Assortment
    The Mendelian principle that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another.
  66. Law of Segregation
    The Mendelian principle that variants of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations.
  67. Mammals
    The class of vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur, self-regulating temperature, and in females milk-producing mammary glands.
  68. Meiosis
    A kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism.
  69. Mitosis
    A kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs, and hence copies of genes, as the parent cell.
  70. Mutation
    Chance alteration of genetic material that produces new variation.
  71. Natural Selection
    The evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation.
  72. Phenotype
    The observable or testable appearance of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles.
  73. Phenotypic Inheritance
    Two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic.
  74. Polygenetic Inheritance
    Two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic.
  75. Population
    In biology, a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed.
  76. Primates
    The group of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.
  77. Recessive
    An allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of a dominant allele.
  78. Sickle-cell Anemia
    An inherited form of anemia caused by a mutation in the hemoglobin protein that causes the red blood cells to assume a sickle shape.
  79. Species
    The smallest working unit in the system of classification. Among living organisms, species are populations or groups of populations capable of interbreeding and producing fertile viable offspring.
  80. Taxonomy
    The science of classification.
  81. Anthropoids
    A subdivision within the primate order that includes New World Monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes (including humans).
  82. Arboreal
    Living in the trees.
  83. Binocular Vision
    Vision with increased depth perception from two eyes set next to each other allowing their visual fields to overlap.
  84. Brachiation
    Using the arms to move from branch to branch, with the body hanging suspended beneath the arms.
  85. Community
    A unit of primate social organization composed of fifty or more individuals who inhabit a large geographical area together.
  86. Diurnal
    Active during the day and at rest at night.
  87. Dominance Hierarchies
    An observed ranking system in primate societies ordering individuals from high (alpha) to low standing corresponding to predictable behavioral interactions including domination.
  88. Grooming
    The ritual cleaning of another animal's coat to remove parasites and other matter.
  89. Haplorhines
    A subdivision within the primate order based on shared genetic characteristics; includes tarsiers, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes (including humans).
  90. Nocturnal
    Active at night and at rest during the day.
  91. Opposable
    Able to bring the thumb or big toe in contact with the tips of the other digits on the same hand or foot in order to grasp objects.
  92. Ovulation
    Moment when an egg released from the ovaries into the womb is receptive for fertilization.
  93. Prehensile
    Having the ability to grasp.
  94. Prosimians
    A subdivision within the primate order that includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
  95. Stereoscopic Vision
    Complete three-dimensional vision (or depth perception) from binocular vision and nerve connections that run from each eye to both sides of the brain allowing nerve cells to integrate the images derived from each eye.
  96. Strepsirhines
    A subdivision within the primate order based on shared genetic characteristics; includes lemurs and lorises.
  97. Tool
    An object used to facilitate some task or activity.
  98. Australopithecus
    The genus including several species of early bipeds from southern and eastern Africa living between about 1.1 and 4.3 million years ago, one of whom was directly ancestral to humans.
  99. Homo erectus
    "Upright man." A species within the genus Homo first appearing just after 2 million years ago in Africa and ultimately spreading throughout the Old World.
  100. Homo habilis
    "Handy man." The first fossil members of the genus Homo appearing 2.5 million years ago, with larger brains and smaller faces than australopithecines.
  101. Anagenesis
    A sustained directional shift in a population's average characteristics.
  102. Bipedalism
    A special form of locomotion on two feet found in humans and their ancestors.
  103. Cladogenesis
    Speciation through a branching mechanism whereby an ancestral population gives rise to two or more descendant populations.
  104. Continental drift
    According to the theory of plate tectonics, the movement of continents embedded in underlying plates on the earth's surface in relation to one another over the history of life on earth.
  105. Gracile Australopithecines
    Members of the genus Australopithecus possessing a more lightly built chewing apparatus; likely had a diet that included more meat than that of the robust australopithecines.
  106. Lower Paleolithic
    Old Stone Age beginning with the earliest Oldowan tools spanning from about 200,000 or 250,000 to 2.6 million years ago.
  107. Macroevolution
    Evolution above the species level.
  108. Mousterian
    The tool industry of the Neandertals and their contemporaries of Europe, Southwest Asia, and northern Africa from 40,000 to 125,000 years ago.
  109. Multiregional Hypothesis
    The hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world.
  110. Neanderthals
    A distinct group within the genus Homo inhabiting Europe and Southwest Asia from approximately 30,000 to 125,000 years ago.
  111. Oldowan
    The first stone tool industry, beginning between 2.5 and 2.6 million years ago.
  112. Punctuated Equilibria
    A model of macroevolutionary change that suggests evolution occurs via long periods of stability or stasis punctuated by periods of rapid change.
  113. Recent African origins hypothesis
    The hypothesis that all modern people are derived from one single population of archaic H. sapiens from Africa who migrated out of Africa after 100,000 years ago, replacing all other archaic forms due to their superior cultural capabilities. Also called the Eve or out of Africa hypothesis.
  114. Robust Australopithecines
    Several species within the genus Australopithecus, who lived from 1.1 to 2.5 million years ago in eastern and southern Africa; known for the rugged nature of their chewing apparatus (large back teeth, large chewing muscles, and a bony ridge on their skull tops for the insertion of these large muscles).
  115. Speciation
    The process of forming new species.
  116. Upper Paleolithic
    The last part (10,000 to 40,000 years ago) of the Old Stone Age, featuring tool industries characterized by long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms.
  117. Agriculture
    Intensive crop cultivation, employing plows, fertilizers, and/or irrigation.
  118. Archaic Cultures
    Term used to refer to Mesolithic cultures in the Americas.
  119. Diffusion
    The spread of certain ideas, customs, or practices from one culture to another.
  120. Domestication
    An evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are unable to survive and/or reproduce without human assistance.
  121. Horticulture
    Cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
  122. Innovation
    Any new idea, method, or device that gains widespread acceptance in society.
  123. Mesoamerica
    The region encompassing southern Mexico and northern Central America.
  124. Mesolithic
    The Middle Stone Age of Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning about 12,000 years ago.
  125. Microlith
    A small blade of flint or similar stone, several of which were hafted together in wooden handles to make tools; widespread in the Mesolithic.
  126. Natufian Culture
    A Mesolithic culture living in the lands that are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria, between about 10,200 and 12,500 years ago.
  127. Neolithic
    The New Stone Age; prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-based technologies and depended on domesticated crops and/or animals.
  128. Neolithic Revolution
    The profound culture change beginning about 10,000 years ago associated with the early domestication of plants and animals and settlement in permanent villages; sometimes referred to as the Neolithic transition.
  129. Pastoralism
    Breeding and managing migratory herds of domesticated grazing animals, such as goats, sheep, cattle, llamas, or camels.
  130. Prehistory
    A conventional term used to refer to the period of time before the appearance of written records. Does not deny the existence of history, merely of written history.
  131. Primary Innovation
    The creation, invention, or chance discovery of a completely new idea, method, or device.
  132. Secondary Innovation
    A new and deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device.
  133. Vegeculture
    The cultivation of domesticated root crops, such as yams and taro.

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