Theory II

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Theory II
2011-02-07 16:45:50
Chapter seventeen

week four
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  1. acquired pellicle or cuticle, dental biofilm, materia alba, food debris
    soft deposites
  2. dental calculus
    hard, calcified deposite
  3. a tenacious membranous layer that forms over exposed tooth surfaces as well as over restorations and dental calculus
    acquired pellicle
  4. The acquired pellicel is a tenacious membranous layer that is what 3 things?
    • amorphous
    • acellular
    • organic
  5. How thick is the acquired pellicle? And where is it usually the greatest?
    • .1-.8 micrometers
    • near the gingival margin
  6. When does the acquired pellicle begin to form?
    within minutes after all external material has been removed from the tooth surfaces with an abrasive
  7. What is the acquired pellicle formed from, or composed of primarily?
    glycoproteins from saliva
  8. What type of pellicle is clear, translucent, insoluble, and not readily visible until a disclosing agent has been applied? And when the agent is applied, it appears thin with a pale staining that contrasts with the thicker darker staining of dental biofilm.
    • surface pellicle
    • unstained
  9. What type of pellicle can take on extrinsic stain and become brown, grayish, or other colors?
    • surface pellicle
    • stained
  10. What type of pellicle is continuous with surface pellicle, and is embedded in tooth structure, particularly where the tooth surface is partially demineralized?
    subsurface pellicle
  11. what are 4 factors that influence the significance of the pellicle?
    • protective
    • lubrication
    • nidus for bacteria
    • calculus attachment
  12. How is a pellicle protective?
    it provides a barrier againse acids; thus, it may aid in reducing a dental caries attack
  13. How is a pellicle lubricant?
    it keeps surfaces moist and prevents drying
  14. What does it mean that a pellicle is nidus for bacteria?
    it participates in biofilm formation by aiding the adherence of microorganisms
  15. true or false. one mode of calc attachment is by the acquired pellicle
  16. dense, nonmineralized complex mass of colonies in a gel-like intermicrobial matrix. It adheres firmly to the acquired pellicle
    dental biofilm
  17. How many microbial species are found in dental biofilm?
    more than 500
  18. What are 3 'other' organisms besides bacteria that may be found in dental biofilm?
    • yeasts
    • protozoa
    • viruses
  19. What are the basic steps in the formation of biofilm? (book says 3 but describes 4)
    • pellicle formation
    • bacterial multiplication and colonization
    • biofilm growth and maturation
    • extra step:
    • matrix formation
  20. Salivary glycoproteins are adsorbed onto dental enamel to form pellicles in what stage of biofilm formatiom?
    stage 1
  21. Selective colonization of the pellicle by microorganisms occurs in what stage of biofilm formation?
    stage 2
  22. growth and maturation of biofilm occurs in what stage of biofilm formation?
    stage 3
  23. What type of microorganism primarily makes up the biofilm in days 1 to 2? Give examples
    • gram-positive cocci
    • streptococci:
    • streptococcus mutans
    • streptococcus sanguis
  24. In what days of biofilm formation do the cocci still dominate, increasing numbers of gram-positive filamentous forms and slender rods may be seen on surface?
    days 2-4
  25. In what days of biofilm removal does the filamentous forms grow into the cocci layer and replace many of the cocci?
    days 2-4
  26. In what days do slow biofilm formers continue to form biofilm compromised primarily of cocci for a longer time than do fast biofilm formers?
    days 2-4
  27. In what days do filaments increase in numbers with a mixed flora with rods, filamentous forms, and fusobacteria?
    days 4-7
  28. In what days does biofilm near the gingival margin thicken and develop a more mature flora with gram-negative spirochetes and vibrios? And as biofilm spreads coronally, the new biofilm has the characteristic coccal form?
    days 4-7
  29. What type of microorganisms and cells increase in days 7-14 of biofilm formation?
    • vibrios
    • spirochetes
    • white blood cells
  30. In what days does more gram negative organisms, and also anaerobic organisms appear in biofilm?
  31. During what days do signs of inflammation start to show in the gingiva?
    days 7-14
  32. In what days of biofilm formation are vibrios and spirochetes prevalent along with cocci and filamentous forms?
    days 14-21
  33. In what days do the densely packed filamentous microorganisms arrange themselves perpendicular to the tooth surface in a palisade, and gingivitis is evident clinically?
    dayts 14-21
  34. HOw long does it take for gingivitis to develop when biofilm is left undisturbed on the tooth surface?
    2-3 weeks
  35. What results from the apical proliferation of microorganisms from supragingival biofilm?
    subgingival dental biofilm
  36. Gingival health is restored after how many days of effective brushing and flossing?
    3-5 days
  37. What type of biofilm includes more anaerobic and motile organisms and is predominately gram-negative?
    subgingival biofilm
  38. epithelial cells and a few cocci are seen in what?
    a well cleaned mouth
  39. masses of cocci and short rods are seen in what?
    a mouth that hasn't been cleaned from 1-2 days
  40. filamentous bacteria, leukocytes, and fusobacteria are seen in what?
    a mouth that hasn't been cleaned for 4-7 days
  41. spirochetes and vibrious are seen in what?
    a mouth that hasn't been cleaned in 1-2 weeks
  42. When will accute gingivitis appear?
    in 2-3 weeks of not cleaning mouth