Card Set Information

2010-02-09 20:16:27
Exam 2

Chapter 6
Show Answers:

  1. Organs made of different tissues
  2. Types of tissue in bones
    • 1. Osseous tissue
    • 2. Connective tissue
    • - Cartilage
    • - Adipose
    • - Dense CT
    • 3. Epithelial tissue
    • 4. Nervous tissue
    • - NAV- nerve, artery, vein (How they travel)
  3. 6 functions of bone
    • 1. Support
    • 2. Protection
    • 3. Movement
    • 4. Mineral Storage
    • 5. Homopoiesis
    • 6. Fat Storage
  4. Bone supports ______.
  5. Bone protects ______.
    Internal organs
  6. Bone functions in movement as an _______.
    attachment site for muscles, which allow us to move
  7. Bone functions as a mineral storage for what mineral?
  8. Bone functions as homopoiesis by the _______.
    Production of red blood cells that takes place in the bone marrow
  9. Bone functions as fat storage because it providese a _______.
    Supply of energy
  10. What are the 5 types of bones?
    • 1. Long Bone
    • 2. Short Bone
    • 3. Flat Bone
    • 4. Irregular Bone
    • 5. Sesamoid Bone
  11. -Type of bone that includes the humerus and femur
    -Longer than they are wide and contain more compact bone than spongy bone
    Long bone
  12. -Type of bone that includes the trapezoid
    -Wider than they are long and contain more spongy bone than compact bone
    Short bone
  13. -Type of bone that includes the sternum and skull
    -Layer of spongy bone in between two layers of compact bone- diploe
    Flat bone
  14. Type of bone that includes the vertebra
    Irregular bone
  15. -Type of bone that includes the patella
    -Usually always associated with attachment of tendons and ligaments
    -Find them where there is a lot of friction
    Sesamoid bone
  16. -Body of a long bone
    -Also called shaft of the bone
  17. -Proximal and distal
    -Ends of the long bone
  18. -Contains the growth plate (epiphysial plate/line)
    -Located between the epiphysis and the Diaphysis
  19. -Colored in blue, found at the ends of long bones
    -Reduces friction between articulating bones
    Articular Cartilage
  20. -Thin covering on the outside of the bone, tough
    -2 layers
    1. Fibrous dense irregular connective tissue layer
    2. Osteogenic layer
  21. -Layer that gives nourishment to the bone
    -When you break a bone, this is the part that will remodel the bone and help it to grow back
    Osteogenic layer
  22. What are the two layers of the Periosteum?
    • 1. Fibrous dense irregular connective tissue layer
    • 2. Osteogenic layer
  23. -Lining of the medullary cavity
  24. -Hollow part of the bone in the diaphysis
    -Bone marrow is found here
    Medullary cavity
  25. Name 5 depressions or openings on bone surfaces
    • 1. Fissure
    • 2. Foramen
    • 3. Fossa
    • 4. Sulcus
    • 5. Meatus
  26. Narrow slit between adjacent bones
  27. Opening through which blood vessels and nerves pass
  28. Indention or a shallow depression(muscle attachment)
  29. Groove or a furrow
  30. Canal or a passageway
  31. Name 3 processes that form joints
    • 1. Condyle
    • 2. Facet
    • 3. Head
  32. Protuberance at the end of a bone
  33. Found on the vertebra, smooth, flat articular surface
  34. Runded large part at the end of a long bone (proximal end)
  35. Name the 7 processes that form attachment points for connective tissues
    • 1. Crest
    • 2. Epicondyle
    • 3. Line
    • 4. Spinous processes
    • 5. Trochanter
    • 6. Tubercle
    • 7. Tuberosity
  36. Prominent ridge
  37. Sits on top of a condyle
  38. Line of demarcation, narrow slit or furrow, doesn’t indent very much, border
  39. Slender projection
    Spinous processes
  40. Very large projection
  41. Nodule or a small eminence
  42. Roughened part of the bone
  43. Name the 4 bone tissue cell types
    • 1. Osteogenic cell
    • 2. Osteoblasts
    • 3. Osteocytes
    • 4. Osteoclasts
  44. -Bone tissue cell
    -Can still divide
    -Immature cell
    -Found in the Periosteum and endosteum
    Osteogenic cell
  45. -Bone tissue cell
    -Forms the bone matrix and collagen fibers
    -Cannot divide
  46. -Bone tissue cell
    -Maintains the health of the bone
  47. -Bone tissue cell
    -Resorption- removes the old bone and breaks down the matrix so the process can start over again
    -One big macrophage
  48. Describe the histology of compact bone

    • 1. Central Canal
    • 2. Osteon
    • 3. Lacunae
    • 4. Caniliculi
    • 5. Osteoytes
    • 6. Intersitial lamella
    • 7. Circumferential lamellae
  49. -Found in compact bone
    -Perforating canal, brings blood vessels to the central canal
    Central Canal
  50. -Found in compact bone
    -Main organizing structure
    -Contains concentric lamellae, lacunae, and osteocytes
  51. -Found in compact bone
    -Where osteocytes are found
  52. -Found in compact bone
    -Fluid filled channels that help cells talk to each other
  53. -Found in compact bone
    -Older lamella that have been pushed out
    Interstitial lamella
  54. -Found in compact bone
    -Oldest lamella and start to wear away
    Circumferential lamellae
  55. Describe the histology of spongy bone

    1. Trabeculae
  56. -Structure of spongy bone
    -Contain osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes
  57. Compact and Spongy bone are distinguished from the other by differences in _____, ______, and ______.
    location, density, and anatomy
  58. Describe the 4 main differences between compact and spongy bone
    • 1. S: thinner C: thicker
    • 2. S: less dense C: more dense
    • 3. S: found on the interior of the bone C: found on the exterior of the bone
    • 4. S: trabeculae C: osteons
  59. Name the 4 arteries that provide the blood supply of a long bone
    • 1. Periosteal arteries
    • 2. Nutrient arteries
    • 3. Metaphyseal arteries
    • 4. Epiphysial arteries
  60. -Delivers the blood to the periosteum
    Periosteal arteries
  61. -This artery goes through the nutrient foremen
    -Supply the medullary cavity
    -Goes to the proximal and distal ends of the bone as well
    Nutrient arteries
  62. -Arteries that go to the metaphysis and the epiphysis
    Metaphyseal and epiphysial arteries
  63. Name the 4 veins that drain blood from bone
    • 1. Periosteal veins
    • 2. Nutrient veins
    • 3. Metaphyseal veins
    • 4. Epiphysial veins
  64. Drains blood from the periosteum
    Periosteal veins
  65. Vein that goes through the nutrient foremen
    Nutrient veins
  66. Drains blood from metaphysis and epiphysis
    Metaphyseal/epiphysial veins
  67. Describe the steps of bone formation in Intermembranous Ossification (flat bones)
    • 1. Development of the ossification center
    • a. No mature cells yet

    • 2. Calcification
    • a. Mature cells, osteocytes in the lacunae

    3. Formation of Trabeculae

    • 4. Development of the periosteum
    • a. Spongy bone between two layers of bone tissue

    -Simpler process than endochondral ossification
  68. Decribe the steps of bone formation in Endochondral Ossification (most of the bones in the body)
    1. Development of cartilage model

    2. Growth of cartilage model

    • 3. Development of primary ossification center
    • a. Nutrient artery perforates the diaphysis of the bone
    • b. Development of spongy bone

    • 4. Development of the medullary cavity
    • a. Maturing, takes shape of a regular bone

    • 5. Development of secondary ossification center
    • a. Secondary ossification at the epiphysis

    6. Formation of articular cartilage and epiphysial plate
  69. In Endochondral Ossification, cartilage is replaced by ______; occurs for most bones of the body.
  70. Endochondral Ossification involves a ____ step process.
  71. The cartilage model of Endochondral Ossification grow in _____ by mitosis and by the deposition of _______.
    Length; extracellular matrix
  72. "Growth in length" by the cartilage model
    Interstitial fluid
  73. Growth of cartilage in thickness is due mainly to the addition of more extracellular matrix to the _______.
  74. "Growth in thickness" of cartilage
    Appositional growth
  75. Describe the steps of increases bone thickness via appositional growth
    1. Ridges in periosteum create groove for Periosteal blood vessel

    2. Periosteal ridges fuse, forming an endosteum-lined tunnel

    3. Osteoblasts in endosteum build new concentric lamellae inward toward center of tunnel, forming a new Osteon

    4. Bone grows outward as osteoblasts in periosteum build new circumferential lamellae. Osteon formation repeats as new Periosteal ridges fold over blood vessels
  76. The growth in length of a long bone involves:
    • 1. Interstitial growth
    • 2. (Role of epiphysial plate) Replacement of cartilage with bone by endochondral ossification on the diaphyseal side of the epiphysial plate
  77. Name the four layers of the epiphyseal that plate permits growth of long bones
    • 1. Zone of resting cartilage
    • 2. Zone of proliferating cartilage
    • 3. Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
    • 4. Zone of calcified cartilage
  78. Layer of Epiphysial Plate that anchors the growth plate to the bone
    Zone of resting cartilage
  79. Layer of Epiphysial Plate that contains rapidly dividing cells
    Zone of proliferating cartilage
  80. Layer of Epiphysial Plate in which cells enlarge a little but remain in stacks or columns
    Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
  81. Layer of Epiphysial Plate that contains a thin zone of dead cells
    Zone of calcified cartilage
  82. What are two ways bone can be remodeled
    • 1. Done by Resorption (Taking the old matrix)
    • 2. Bone deposition (New matrix is created)
  83. Literally means “porous bones”
  84. The problem with osteoporosis is that bone _____ outpaces bone ______.
    Resorption (destruction); deposition (formation)
  85. Older women suffer from osteoporosis more often than men for two reasons:
    • 1. Women contain estrogen
    • 2. Production of the main androgen (testosterone)in older men wanes gradually and only slightly
  86. List the 7 types of bone fractures:
    • 1. Open fracture
    • 2. Comminuted fracture
    • 3. Greenstick fracture
    • 4. Impacted fracture
    • 5. Pott's fracture
    • 6. Colle's fracture
    • 7. Stress fracture
  87. -Type of bone fracture
    -Bone protrudes through the skin
    -Dr. Hargroder playing soccer
    Open fracture
  88. -Type of bone fracture
    -Break pushes bone fragments in between the break
    -Splinters and fragments lie near the break
    Comminuted fracture
  89. -Type of bone fracture
    -Only in children
    -Break of one bone and bending of the other
    Greenstick fracture
  90. -Type of bone fracture
    -Jams bone or into bone socket
    -Forcefully driven into the interior of the other bone
    Impacted fracture
  91. -Type of bone fracture
    -Common in soccer, in the leg
    -Break in the lateral bone and problems with the distal articulation
    Pott’s Fracture
  92. -Type of bone fracture
    -In the arm, break in the lateral bone and articulation problems
    Colles’ Fracture
  93. -Type of bone fracture
    -Most common
    -Microscopic fissures or fractures in bone that usually form from repeated, strenuous activites
    -About 25% of these fractures involve the tibia
    Stress Fracture