Theory II

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Theory II
2011-02-07 17:42:42
Chapter seventeen

week four
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  1. What are 3 different types of biofilm in the organization of subgingival biofilm?
    • tooth-surface-attached biofilm
    • unattached biofilm
    • epithelium-associated biofilm
  2. subgingival biofilm that is over the pellicle which covers the tooth surface, a layer of packed microorganisms, and is associated with calculus formation, root caries, and root resorption
    tooth-surface-attached biofilm
  3. subgingival biofilm that is between the two layers of attached biofilm, has many planktonic, motile, gram-negative organisms, the planktonic 'free-floating' biofilm contains many white blood cells
    unattached biofilm
  4. subgingival biofilm that is loosely attached to the pocket epithelium with many gram-negative microorganisms and numerous white blood cells, and from this layer, microorganisms invade the underlying connective tissue
    epithelium-associated biofilm
  5. Biofilm is composed of __________ and _________
    • microorganisms
    • intermicrobial matrix
  6. Organic and inorganic solids constitute what percent of biofilm?
  7. Water accounts for what percent of microorganisms?
  8. What percent of the solid matter of biofilm is made up of microorganisms?
  9. true or false. Composition of biofilm differs among individuals, and as it ages it changes
  10. Name 4 inorganic elements in dental biofilm
    • calcium
    • phosphate
    • magnesium
    • fluoride
  11. Is the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium higher in biofilm or saliva? And what transports these minerals during the mineralization and demineralization processes?
    • biofilm
    • saliva
  12. Name 3 or the organic components of biofilm
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • small amounts of lipids
  13. What are 4 types of carbohydrates that can be a part of the biofilm composition and contribute to the adherence of microorganisms to eachother and the tooth?
    • glucans
    • fructans
    • levans
    • dextran (a type of glucan)
  14. supragingival biofilm contains proteins derived from what?
    subgingival biofilm contains proteins from what?
    • saliva
    • gingival sulcus fluid
  15. Name 4 areas of distribution of biofilm
    • supragingival
    • gingival
    • subgingival
    • fissure
  16. biofilm is coronal to the gingival margin
  17. biofilm forms on the external surfaces of the oral epithelium and attached gingiva
    gingival biofilm
  18. biofilm is located between the periodontal attachment and the gingival margin, within the sulcus or pocket
    subgingival biofilm
  19. biofilm also develops in pits
    fissure biofilm
  20. Where does bioflim occur most frequently and why?
    Where does biofilm occur least frequently and why?
    • proximal surfaces and around gingival third
    • hard to clean
    • palatal surface of maxillary teeth
    • activity of tongue
  21. What are 5 factors that influence biofilm accumulation?
    • crowded teeth
    • rough surfaces
    • difficult to clean
    • out of occlusion
    • bacterial multiplication (thickness of it results from constant cell division of bacteria within)
  22. Using direct vision, what type of biofilm is each of the following described?
    -translucent and no visivle until disclosed
    -extrinsic stains that make it visible, like yellow, green, tocacco
    -tooth may appear dull, dingy, with a matted fur-like surface
    • thin biofilm
    • stained biofilm
    • thick biofilm
  23. What are 4 ways to detect biofilm?
    • direct vision
    • explorer or probe
    • disclosing agent
    • clinical record
  24. In using an explorer or probe to detect biofilm, what type of examination is being done?
    tactile examination
  25. true or false. when present, biofilm will adhere to the probe or explorer tip
  26. disclosig agent is not to be applied until what?
    evaluation of the oral mucosa and gingival color has been recorded
  27. How is biofilm recorded?
    • by location and extent
    • slight
    • moderate
    • heavy
  28. true or false. Microbial biofilm plays a major role in the initiation and progression of both dental caries and periodontal infections
  29. true or false. periodontal diseases and dental caries are infectious transmissible diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms found in microbial biofilms
  30. true or false. biofilm is significant in the formation of dental calculus. calculus is essentially mineralized biofilm
  31. true or false. general oral cleanliness depends on the daily removal of dental biofilm deposits, the accumulation of biofilm contributes to an unpleasant personal esthetic appearance as well as to halitosis
  32. a disease of the dental calcified structures (enamel, dentin, and cementum) that is characterized by demineralization of the mineral components and dissolution of the organic matrix
    dental caries
  33. cariogenic foods + dental biofilm = ___________
    acid formation
  34. fill in the blanks for the sequence of caries and biofilm:
    acid formation > ___________ > ______________ > dental caries
    • demineralization
    • white spot incipient lesion
  35. What are the initial etiologic agents in biofilm?
    mutans streptococci (streptococcus mutans and streptococcus sobrinus)
  36. _________bacilli have a significant role in the progression of a carious lesion and mutans streptococci are prominent in the initiation of the carous process
  37. What are 2 factors that promote the growth of microorganisms in the biofilm?
    • decreased salivary flow (xerostomia)
    • increased carbohydrate intake
  38. how soon does acid form when the cariogenic substance is taken into the biofilm?
  39. What is the normal/neutral pH in the mouth before eating?
    • 6.2-7.0
    • * it is lower in caries susceptible person and higher in caries resistant person
  40. At what level does the pH need to be when enamel will demineralize?
    At what level does the pH need to be when root surface will demineralize?
    • 4.5-5.5
    • 6.0-6.7
  41. The amount of demineralization depends on what?
    the length of time and the frequency with which the acid with a pH below the critical pH is in contact with the tooth surface