Theory II

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Theory II
2011-02-07 19:21:56
Chapter eighteen

week four
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  1. mineralized dental biofilm that is filled with crystals of various calcium phosphates; covered with a layer of nonmineralized dental biofilm containing viable active bacteria; and forms on the clinical crowns of natural teeeth and dental implants, dentures, and other dental prostheses
  2. How is dental calculus classified?
    by its location on a tooth surface as related to the adjacent free gingival margin
  3. What are the two locations of calculus?
    • supragingival
    • subgingival
  4. calculus found on the clinical crown coronal to the margin of the gingiva, also found on implants, complete and partial dentures
    supragingival calculus
  5. What are the number one most frequent sites of supragingival calculus? why?
    • lingual surface of mandibular anteriors
    • facial surfaces of maxillary first and second molars
    • they are opposite the openings of the ducts of the salivary glands
  6. What are the number 2 most frequent site form supragingival calculus?
    • on the crowns of teeth out of occlusion
    • nonfunctioning teeth
    • teeth that are neglected during dayily biofilm removal
  7. What are the mumber 3 most frequent sites of supragingival calculus?
    on surfaces of dentures, prostheses, and tongue piercings
  8. What are 4 other names for supragingival calculus?
    • supramarginal
    • extragingival
    • coronal
    • salivary
  9. What type of calculus is found on the clinical crown apical to the margin of the gingiva and extending nearly to the clinical attachment on the root surface?
    subgingival calculus
  10. can subgingival calculus be found on dental implants?
  11. what is the most common place for subgingival calculus?
    • areas that are most difficult for the patient to access during personal biofilm removal
    • it can be generalized or localized
  12. What are 2 other names for subgingival calculus?
    • submarginal
    • serumal
  13. What are the 6 main inorganic components in calculus?
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • carbonate
    • sodium
    • magnesium
    • potassium
  14. true or false. Fluoride is an inorganic component found in calculus sometimes
  15. 2/3 of the inorganic matter of calculus is ________, principally ________
    • crystalline
    • apatite (hydroxyapatite)
  16. What are 3 other crystals besides apatite found in calculus?
    • brushite
    • whitlockite
    • octocalcium phosphate
  17. What percent of each of the following substances is made up of mineralized inorganic salts:
    mature calculus
    • 96%
    • 65%
    • 45-50%
    • 70-90%
  18. nonvital microorganisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leukocytes, and mucin from saliva make up what proportion of calculus?
    the organic content
  19. cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, and fatty acids in the lipid fraction; reduce sugars and carbonhydrate - protein complexes in the carbohydrate fractoin; and keratins, nucleoproteins, and amino acids in the protein portion are substances identified in what part of the calculus?
    found in the organic matrix
  20. What are the 3 basic steps that calculus formation occurs in?
    • pellicle formation
    • biofilm formation
    • biofilm mineralization
  21. What is composed of mucoproteins from the saliva, is an acellular material, and begins to form within minutes after all deposits have been removed from the tooth surface?
    pellicle or cuticle
  22. In what step of calculus formation do microorganisms settle in the pellicle layer, colonies form consisting primarily of cocci and rod-shaped organisms in early calc, and the colonies grow together to form a cohesive layer
    biofilm maturation
  23. When is biofilm mostly made up of filamentous organisms?
    by the 5th day
  24. In what step of calc formation do the foci coalesce forming mineralized foci; mineralization first occurs in the intermicrobial matrix provided by the filamentous microorganisms; and as the deposit ages, mineralization within the bodies of bacteria occurs
    mineralization of biofilm
  25. What is the source of elements for supragingival calculus?
  26. What is the source of elements for subgingival calculus?
    gingival sulcus fluid and inflammatory exudate
  27. What 3 places in order from first to last does crystal form in calculus?
    • in the intercellular matrix
    • on the surface of the bacteria
    • within the bacteria
  28. What are the 4 types of crystals that form in mineralization of calculus?
    • hydroxyapatite
    • octocalcium phosphate
    • whitlockite
    • brushite
  29. true or false. The mineralization process is considered the same for sub and supragingival calculus?
  30. Heavy calculus formers have higher salivary levels of what 2 substances than do light calculus formers?
    calcium and phosphorus
  31. light calculus formers have higher levels of what substance?
    parotid pyrophosphate
  32. calculus forms in ________ that are more or less _________ with the tooth surface
    • layers
    • parallel
  33. Layers in calculus are separated by a line that appears to be a pellicle that was deposited over the previously formed calc, and as mineralization progressed, the pellicle became emebedded.
    incremental lines
  34. How do incremental lines of calculus form in suptragingival calc?
    around the tooth
  35. How do incremental lines of calculus form in subgingival calculus?
    they form irregularly from crown to apex on the root surface
  36. incremental lines are evidence that calculus grows or increases by ________ of new layers
  37. What does the surface of calculus feel like? And how is it detected?
    • rough
    • by use of an explorer
  38. What layer of calculus is partly calcified, is a thick, matlike, soft layer of dental biofilm; and the subgingival calc is in contact with the disease pocket epithelium on this layer
    outer layer
  39. the average number of days required for the primary soft deposit to change to the mature mineralized stage
    formation time
  40. What is the average formation time for calculus? What is the range of formation time of calculus? and how early can mineralization begin when a patient's daily oral hygiene is neglected?
    • 12 days
    • 10 days for rapid formers-20 days for slow formers
    • 24-48 hours