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Which scientist was responsible for determining the origin of ANTHRAX?
Which scientist was responsible for making the first hand-held microscope?
Which scientist was responsible for proposing the germ theory of disease?
Which scientists refuted the idea of spontaneous generation?
Which scientist proved the germ theory of disease?
What are the steps in the scientific method? Give example.
1. Observation—Observe something interesting
- 2. Ask questions
- 3. Hypothesis—Potential answer to questions
- 4. Experiment—Test hypothesis
- 5. Results
- 6. Accept, Reject, Modify Hypothesis
1. Take microorganism causing illness
- 2. Purify culture
- 3. Inject into healthy animal
- 4. Identical microbes are isolated and recultured of dead experimental animal
- 5. Repeated to find microbe causing illness
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Did King Peter Cut Out Franks Cuts Swiftly
What is the difference between atoms, molecules, and macromolecules?
Atoms—contain neutrons, protons, electrons
- Molecules—connected atoms; H2O; Building blocks of life—C, H, O, N
- Macromolecules—carbohydrates (CHON), proteins (CHONS), Lipids (CHO), Nucleic Acids (CHONP)
Monosaccharides (1 sugar w/ 3-7 carbons)
- Disaccharides ( 2 sugars)Polysaccharides (multiple sugars)
- Chained together by removing water moleculeàDehydration synthesis
- EukaryotesàCellulose & Chitin
- ProkaryotesàPeptidoglycanàNAG & NAM chain together to make polysaccharide
Essential in ability to liveTriglyceride
- Glycerol & 3 Fatty Acids
- Glycerol, 3 Fatty Acids, & Phosphate Group
- Tail-hydrophobic} makes membrane around cell
- Steroids-more common in Eukaryotic organisms
- Fatty Acids
- Saturatedàhave Carbons to Hydrogens
- Unsaturatedàhave carbon to carbons
Produced by combining 2 or more amino acids
- Polymenàmultiple proteins
- Dehydrationàmakes chain shorter
- Hydrolysisàmakes chain longer
- Amino Acids
- Amino Group
- Carboxyl Group
- Denature Protein->”unfold” protein into primary structure
- Pentose sugar (5 carbons)
- Phosphate BackboneDNA & RNAàNucleotides
Why are lipids so important?
Energy for cells; essential for life
How many levels are there in protein structure?
- Secondary->Alpha helix or beta pleated sheets
- Tertiary-->Multiple secondary shapes
- Quatranary-->Final Shape
- Proteins made up of million amino acids
What are the differences in RNA and DNA?
- DNA-->A-T & G-C Purine-->A-Adenine & T-Thymine
- RNA-->A-U & G-C Pyrimidine-->Cystosine, G-Guanine, & U-Uracil
- RNA-->single stranded, Ribose Sugar, Interprets the information
- DNA-->Double stranded, Deoxyribose Sugar, Holds the information
What are examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic—Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Small Animals (Humans)
Give example of size differences between human cell, bacterial cell, and viral cell.
- Bacterial cell-room in house
- Viral Cell-chair in room
Gram-positive vs. gram-negative
Peptidoclygan takes in stain
- Takes stain-->Positive-->Purple
- Doesn’t take stain-->Negative-->Pink/Red
Pilus-Arms off body
- Flagellum-Tail (monotrichous 1, amphitrichous 2, lophotrichious 4, peritrichous many)
- Cell Wall
- Cytoplasmic Membrane
- Cytoplasm-uses ATP for active process
- No ATP for passive process-moves my concentration gradient
- 1 Chromosome
- Ribosome-70S made up of small and larger piece
Bacteria (Prokaryotic) Part
- Furthest external structur-->Glycocalyx
- Around capsule
- Chains-->streptococci, streptobacilli
- Coccobacillus-->rod & circular shaped (Round Square)
- Sprillium-->snake like
- Cell Wall
- Plasma Membrane
- Paired chromo
- ER-Transport network
- Smooth-no ribosomes
- Golgi-Protein gets reformed
- Lysosome-digestive enzymes
- Vacuole-store food & H2O
- Mitochondrion-Respiration & Energy
- Used to be own prokaryotic organism
- Cholorplast-Plant cell photosynthesis
- Larger & smaller subunits
Movement across plasma membrane
Prokaryotic-->Flegella, cilia help move; Endoflagella tightens inside of organism allows for rotation & movement
Eukaryotic-->Mirotubules in flagellum; not fast moving; whipping motion; very strong
What is the Endosymbiotic theory?
Mitrochondria & Chloroplast organelles were once prokaryotic organisms
- 70S ribosomes
- Protected in Eukaryotic organism and gets tons of energy
- Plants took chrloroplast & mitochondria
- Animals took mitochondria only