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Microbiology Exam 1
Microbiology Ch. 1, 2, & 3
Which scientist was responsible for determining the origin of ANTHRAX?
Which scientist was responsible for making the first hand-held microscope?
Antoni van Leuwenhock
Which scientist was responsible for proposing the germ theory of disease?
Which scientists refuted the idea of spontaneous generation?
Which scientist proved the germ theory of disease?
What are the steps in the scientific method? Give example.
1. Observation—Observe something interesting
2. Ask questions
3. Hypothesis—Potential answer to questions
4. Experiment—Test hypothesis
6. Accept, Reject, Modify Hypothesis
Explain Koch’s postules.
1. Take microorganism causing illness
2. Purify culture
3. Inject into healthy animal
4. Identical microbes are isolated and recultured of dead experimental animal
5. Repeated to find microbe causing illness
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Did King Peter Cut Out Franks Cuts Swiftly
What is the difference between atoms, molecules, and macromolecules?
Atoms—contain neutrons, protons, electrons
Molecules—connected atoms; H2O; Building blocks of life—C, H, O, N
Macromolecules—carbohydrates (CHON), proteins (CHONS), Lipids (CHO), Nucleic Acids (CHONP)
Monosaccharides (1 sugar w/ 3-7 carbons)
Disaccharides ( 2 sugars)Polysaccharides (multiple sugars)
Chained together by removing water moleculeàDehydration synthesis
EukaryotesàCellulose & Chitin
ProkaryotesàPeptidoglycanàNAG & NAM chain together to make polysaccharide
Essential in ability to liveTriglyceride
Glycerol & 3 Fatty Acids
Glycerol, 3 Fatty Acids, & Phosphate Group
Tail-hydrophobic} makes membrane around cell
Steroids-more common in Eukaryotic organisms
Saturatedàhave Carbons to Hydrogens
Unsaturatedàhave carbon to carbons
Produced by combining 2 or more amino acids
Dehydrationàmakes chain shorter
Hydrolysisàmakes chain longer
Denature Protein->”unfold” protein into primary structure
Pentose sugar (5 carbons)
Phosphate BackboneDNA & RNAàNucleotides
Why are lipids so important?
Energy for cells; essential for life
How many amino acids?
How many levels are there in protein structure?
Secondary->Alpha helix or beta pleated sheets
Tertiary-->Multiple secondary shapes
Proteins made up of million amino acids
What are the differences in RNA and DNA?
DNA-->A-T & G-C Purine-->A-Adenine & T-Thymine
RNA-->A-U & G-C Pyrimidine-->Cystosine, G-Guanine, & U-Uracil
RNA-->single stranded, Ribose Sugar, Interprets the information
DNA-->Double stranded, Deoxyribose Sugar, Holds the information
What are examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic—Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Small Animals (Humans)
Give example of size differences between human cell, bacterial cell, and viral cell.
Bacterial cell-room in house
Viral Cell-chair in room
Gram-positive vs. gram-negative
Peptidoclygan takes in stain
Doesn’t take stain-->Negative-->Pink/Red
Prokaryotic Cell Parts
Pilus-Arms off body
Flagellum-Tail (monotrichous 1, amphitrichous 2, lophotrichious 4, peritrichous many)
Cytoplasm-uses ATP for active process
No ATP for passive process-moves my concentration gradient
Ribosome-70S made up of small and larger piece
Bacteria (Prokaryotic) Part
Furthest external structur-->Glycocalyx
Coccobacillus-->rod & circular shaped (Round Square)
Eukaryotic Cell Parts
Golgi-Protein gets reformed
Vacuole-store food & H2O
Mitochondrion-Respiration & Energy
Used to be own prokaryotic organism
Cholorplast-Plant cell photosynthesis
Larger & smaller subunits
Movement across plasma membrane
Prokaryotic-->Flegella, cilia help move; Endoflagella tightens inside of organism allows for rotation & movement
Eukaryotic-->Mirotubules in flagellum; not fast moving; whipping motion; very strong
What is the Endosymbiotic theory?
Mitrochondria & Chloroplast organelles were once prokaryotic organisms
Protected in Eukaryotic organism and gets tons of energy
Plants took chrloroplast & mitochondria
Animals took mitochondria only