MicrobiologyExam1.txt

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cjthompson14
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6483
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MicrobiologyExam1.txt
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2010-02-09 12:40:30
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Microbiology Exam 1
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Microbiology Ch. 1, 2, & 3
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  1. Which scientist was responsible for determining the origin of ANTHRAX?
  2. Robert Koch
  3. Which scientist was responsible for making the first hand-held microscope?
  4. Antoni van Leuwenhock
  5. Which scientist was responsible for proposing the germ theory of disease?
  6. Louis Pasteur
  7. Which scientists refuted the idea of spontaneous generation?
  8. Reddi, Pasteur
  9. Which scientist proved the germ theory of disease?
  10. Louis Pasteur
  11. What are the steps in the scientific method? Give example.
  12. 1. Observation—Observe something interesting
    • 2. Ask questions
    • 3. Hypothesis—Potential answer to questions
    • 4. Experiment—Test hypothesis
    • 5. Results
    • 6. Accept, Reject, Modify Hypothesis
  13. Explain Koch’s postules.
  14. 1. Take microorganism causing illness
    • 2. Purify culture
    • 3. Inject into healthy animal
    • 4. Identical microbes are isolated and recultured of dead experimental animal
    • 5. Repeated to find microbe causing illness
  15. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  16. Did King Peter Cut Out Franks Cuts Swiftly
  17. What is the difference between atoms, molecules, and macromolecules?
  18. Atoms—contain neutrons, protons, electrons
    • Molecules—connected atoms; H2O; Building blocks of life—C, H, O, N
    • Macromolecules—carbohydrates (CHON), proteins (CHONS), Lipids (CHO), Nucleic Acids (CHONP)
  19. Carbohydrates
  20. Monosaccharides (1 sugar w/ 3-7 carbons)
    • Disaccharides ( 2 sugars)Polysaccharides (multiple sugars)
    • Chained together by removing water moleculeàDehydration synthesis
    • EukaryotesàCellulose & Chitin
    • ProkaryotesàPeptidoglycanàNAG & NAM chain together to make polysaccharide
  21. Lipids
  22. Essential in ability to liveTriglyceride
    • Glycerol & 3 Fatty Acids
    • Phospholipid
    • Glycerol, 3 Fatty Acids, & Phosphate Group
    • Head-hydrophilic}
    • Tail-hydrophobic} makes membrane around cell
    • Steroids-more common in Eukaryotic organisms
    • Fatty Acids
    • Saturatedàhave Carbons to Hydrogens
    • Unsaturatedàhave carbon to carbons
  23. Proteins
  24. Produced by combining 2 or more amino acids
    • Polymenàmultiple proteins
    • Dehydrationàmakes chain shorter
    • Hydrolysisàmakes chain longer
    • Amino Acids
    • Carbon
    • Amino Group
    • Carboxyl Group
    • R-Group
    • Denature Protein->”unfold” protein into primary structure
  25. Nucleic Acids
  26. C,H,O,N
    • Pentose sugar (5 carbons)
    • Phosphate BackboneDNA & RNAàNucleotides
  27. Why are lipids so important?
  28. Energy for cells; essential for life
  29. How many amino acids?
  30. 20
  31. How many levels are there in protein structure?
  32. Primary-->Line
    • Secondary->Alpha helix or beta pleated sheets
    • Tertiary-->Multiple secondary shapes
    • Quatranary-->Final Shape
    • Proteins made up of million amino acids
  33. What are the differences in RNA and DNA?
    • DNA-->A-T & G-C Purine-->A-Adenine & T-Thymine
    • RNA-->A-U & G-C Pyrimidine-->Cystosine, G-Guanine, & U-Uracil

    • RNA-->single stranded, Ribose Sugar, Interprets the information
    • DNA-->Double stranded, Deoxyribose Sugar, Holds the information
  34. What are examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
  35. Prokaryotic—Bacteria, Archae
    Eukaryotic—Fungi, Protozoa, Algae, Small Animals (Humans)
  36. Give example of size differences between human cell, bacterial cell, and viral cell.
  37. Human cell-house
    • Bacterial cell-room in house
    • Viral Cell-chair in room
  38. Gram-positive vs. gram-negative
  39. Peptidoclygan takes in stain
    • Takes stain-->Positive-->Purple
    • Doesn’t take stain-->Negative-->Pink/Red
  40. Prokaryotic Cell Parts
  41. Pilus-Arms off body
    • Flagellum-Tail (monotrichous 1, amphitrichous 2, lophotrichious 4, peritrichous many)
    • Capsule
    • Cell Wall
    • Cytoplasmic Membrane
    • Nucleoid
    • Cytoplasm-uses ATP for active process
    • No ATP for passive process-moves my concentration gradient
    • 1 Chromosome
    • Ribosome-70S made up of small and larger piece
  42. Bacteria (Prokaryotic) Part
    • Furthest external structur-->Glycocalyx
    • Around capsule
    • Sticky
  43. Bacteria Arrangements
  44. Pairs-->diplococci, diplobacilli
    • Clusters-->staphylococci
    • Chains-->streptococci, streptobacilli
  45. Bacteria Shapes
  46. Coccus-->circular
    • Rod
    • Coccobacillus-->rod & circular shaped (Round Square)
    • Vibrio-->boomerang
    • Sprillium-->snake like
    • Spriochete-->corkscrew
  47. Eukaryotic Cell Parts
  48. Glycocalyxes
    • Cell Wall
    • Flagellum
    • Cilia
    • Plasma Membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Organelles
    • Nucleus-Brain
    • Paired chromo
    • ER-Transport network
    • Smooth-no ribosomes
    • Rough-Ribosomes
    • Golgi-Protein gets reformed
    • Lysosome-digestive enzymes
    • Vacuole-store food & H2O
    • Mitochondrion-Respiration & Energy
    • Used to be own prokaryotic organism
    • Cholorplast-Plant cell photosynthesis
    • Ribosomes
    • Larger & smaller subunits
    • 80S
  49. Movement across plasma membrane
    Prokaryotic-->Flegella, cilia help move; Endoflagella tightens inside of organism allows for rotation & movement

    Eukaryotic-->Mirotubules in flagellum; not fast moving; whipping motion; very strong
  50. What is the Endosymbiotic theory?
  51. Mitrochondria & Chloroplast organelles were once prokaryotic organisms
    • 70S ribosomes
    • Protected in Eukaryotic organism and gets tons of energy
    • Plants took chrloroplast & mitochondria
    • Animals took mitochondria only

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