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Greek � Ana = Up & Tome = a cutting
What is anatomy?
- The science of the structure of a living organism and the relation of its parts
What is Surface morphology ?
how internal structures relate to the skins surface
What is Gross Anatomy?
What is Cytology? (cytological anatomy)
What is Histology? (histological)
What is organology?
What is Radiographic anatomy?
internal structures as visualized by x-ray images or specialized scanning procedures.
What is Neuroanaomy?
structure of the nervous system.
What is Developmental anatomy?
changes throughout life � structural changes
What is Embryology?
developmental changes before birth
What is Pathology?
pathological � structural changes because of disease
What is Comparative anatomy?
compare structures across different organisms
What is Surgical anatomy?
gross anatomy with a twist
What are the two approaches to anatomy?
- Systemic/systematic approach
- Regional approach � cadaver
What is Physiology?
Science of the functions of a living organism
What are the "Factors" involved in physiology?
- Physical factors (physics)
- Chemical Factors (Chemistry)
What is the Processes involved in studing physiology?
- Sub division �System�
- E.g. cardiovascular physiology�renal physiology�
- Major Emphasis on cellular and muscular events
Bottom line: Anatomy is the Body�s
Bottom line: Physiology is the Body�s
Principal of Complementary of Structure and Function
- Structure --> f(x)
- f(x)---> structure
What are the Levels of structural organization
Chemical level, Cellular level, Tissue level, organ level, system level and organism level
What is the chemical level?.
What is the Cellular Level
- Cell = basic living structure and functional unit of the body
- Tissue level
What is the tissue level?
Tissue = aggregate of similarly specialized cells along with the extracellular material united to perform a particular function
What are the 4 basic tissues (General)
Epithelium, Connective Tissue, Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue.
What is the Epithelium?
- covers and lines body surfaces; helps to form glands
- Have a free surface � closely packed
What is Connective Tissue, and what does it consist of?
- binds together, defense, support to the body.
- Consists of cells, fibers, and grond substance
What is Muscle Tissue used for, what are its identifying characteristic?
- � movement
- Cross striations
What is Nervous Tissue used for, what are its identifying characteristic?
- - communication
- Cells with long processes
What is an Organ?
Organ = structure with a definite form and function; composed of 2 or more tissues
What is a system?
System = a set of interconnected or interdependent organs that function together in a common purpose
What is the Organism Level?
= sum total of all structural levels working together to keep you alive
Integumentary system functions include?
forms external body covering; protection; temperature regulation; waste elimination; vitamin D synthesis
Integumentary system organs/structures include?
- Sweat glands,
- Sebaceous glands�
Skeletal system functions include?
Supports and protects body; Leverage; Stores minerals; Blood cells form within bone cavities
Skeletal system organs/structures include?
- Bones (e.g. Frontal b., clavicle, rib�),
- (& Joints)
Muscular system functions include?
- Thermo genesis;
- Maintains posture
Muscular system organs/structures include?
- Skeletal muscles (e.g. deltoideus, gluteus maximus, trapezius�)
- (smooth muscle & cardiac muscle)
Nervous system functions include?
Regulates the body activities though nerve impulse
Nervous system organs/structures include?
- spinal cord,
- cranial nerves,
- spinal nerves,
- sensory organs�
Endocrine system functions include?
Regulates the body activities through hormones
Endocrine system organs/structures include?
- parathyroid gland,
- suprarenal gland,
- thyroid gland,
- various endocrine cells�
Cardiovascular system functions include?
- Transports O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, etc.
- Protects against disease and hemorrhage.
Cardiovascullar system organs/structures include?
Heart, blood vessels, Blood
Lymphatic system functions include?
- Filters body fluids;
- Produces white blood cells;
- Involved in immune response
Lymphatic system organs/structures include?
- Lymph nodes,
- lymphatic vessels.
Respiratory system functions include?
- Gaseous exchange;
- Helps regulate acid/base balance of blood
Respiratory system organ/structures include?
Larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus�
Digestive system functions include?
- Physical and chemical breakdown of food;
- absorption of food products;
- elimination of undigested foodstuffs in feces
Digestive system organ/structure includes?
- Gastrointestinal tract
- small intestine,
- large intestine�),
- Gall bladder,
- Salivary glands,
Urinary system functions include?
- Elimination of nitrogenous wastes in urine;
- regulates water, electrolyte and acid/base balance of blood.
Urinary system organs/structure includes?
- urinary bladder,
Reproductive system functions include?
Propagation of species
Reproductive system organs/structures include?
- prostate gland,
- uterine tube,
Basic survival needs include the metabloism, what is Metabolism?
Sum of all biochemical reactions that occur within an organism, including anabolic and catabolic reactions.
What is the Intake of food?
What is the Breakdown of food into usable material?
What is the Uptake of substances by cells?
What is the Build up of absorbed substances into different materials that are required by the cells; The incorporation digested �food� into living tissues?
What is the Generation of energy (cellular level)?
What is the Production and release of useful substances?
What is the Elimination of wastes?
What is the Ability to receive and respond to stimuli?
Excitability or irritability (responsiveness)
What is the Ability to carry out the effect of a stimulus from one part of the cell to another?
What is the Ability of cells or parts of cells to actively generate force to undergo shortening and changing form for movement?
What is the Increase in size called?
What is the Acquisition of specific function(s) and. /or structure different from the original general type?
What is Either the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement; or the production of a new individual?
What is the Anatomical Position?
� standing; facing the observer; upper limbs are at the sides with palms forward; feet are forward and slightly apart.
What region is Abdominal
What region is Acromial
Point of shoulder
What region is Antebrachial
What region is Antecubital
Front of elbow
What region is Appendicular
What region is Axial
Main body axis
What region is Axillary
What region is Brachial
What region is Buccal
What region is Calcaneal
What region is Carpal
What region is Cephalic
What region is Cervical
What region is Cranial
Part of the skull that houses the brain
What region is Crural
What region is Digital
Fingers or toes
What region is Dorsal or dorsum
What region is Facial
Part of the skull that forms the face
What region is Femoral
What region is Frontal
What region is Gluteal
What region is Hallux
What region is Inguinal
What region is Lumbar
Loin (lower back)
What region is Mammary
What region is Manual or manus
What region is Mental
What region is Metacarpal
Area of hand between wrist and fingers
What region is Metatarsal
Area of foot between ankle and toes
What region is Nasal
What region is Occipital
Back of head; base of skull
What region is Olecranal
Back of elbow
What region is Oral
What region is Orbital
What region is Palmar
What region is Patellar
What region is Pedal
What region is Pelvic
What region is Perineal
Region between anus and external genitalia
What region is Peroneal or fibular
Side of leg
What region is Phalangeal
Fingers or toes
What region is Plantar
Sole of foot
What region is Pollex
What region is Popliteal
Back of knee
What region is Pubic
What region is Sacral
Posterior area between the hips
What region is Scapular
Shoulder blade area
What region is Sternal
What region is Sural
What region is Tarsal
What region is Thoracic
What region is Trunk
The body excluding the head, neck and limbs
What region is Umbilical
What region is Vertebral
Spinal column region
what do Planes of the body refer to?
Imaginary flat lines that passes thought the body and/or its parts
When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions, then it is called a ?
Frontal or coronal plane
When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into equal right and let portions, then it is called a?
When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into unequal right and let portions, then it is called a
Sagittal or parasagittal plane
When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) portions, then it is called a
Transverse or horizontal plane
What do Sections though a body refer to?
Actual cut made along a plane
If a cut is made along (parallel to) the long axis of the body or part then it is called a
A frontal section is a
Longitudinal section that passes along a frontal plane
A Midsagittal section is a
Is a longitudinal section that passes along a Midsagittal plane
A Sagittal section is a
Longitudinal section that passes along a Sagittal plane
If a cut is made perpendicular to the long axis of the body or a part, than it is called a
Transverse or cross section
A cross section passes along a
If a cut is made at an angel (but not 90deg), then it is called an oblique section.
Near to or the front of the body
Near to or at the front of the body
Near to or at the back of the body
Near to or at the back of the body
Farther from the midline of the body or structure
Nearer to the midline of the body or structure
Lying In the midline � central position
Between two structures
Toward the head or upper part of the structure
Toward the head or upper part of the structure
Toward the head or upper part of the structure
Away from the head, closer to the lower part
Away from the head, closer to the lower part
Nearer to the point of origin or trunk attachment
Farther to the point of origin or trunk attachment
Toward or on the body surface
Away from the body surface
Pertaining to or forming the outer wall of a body cavity
Pertaining to or forming the outer covering of an organ within a body cavity
On the same side
On the opposite side
The body when lying face downward
The body when lying face upward
The Dorsal body cavity holds the ?
cranial cavity and the vetebral cavity
The Cranial cavity contains?
- Cranial bones (skull)
The Veterbreal canal contains?
The Ventral body cavity contains the
- Thoracic cavity
- Abdominoplevic cavity
The Mediastinum is what? and what does it contain?
- Region of the thoracic between the lungs;
- between the sternum and vertebral column;
- contains the trachea, bronchial tubes, esophagus, heart, vessels and CT
The Serous membrane within the ventral body cavity included the :
What is the serous membrane?
a thin double-layer membrane with a Fluid filled cavity between the layers (visceral layer and parietal layer)
Retroperitoneal means what and where is it?
- behind the peritoneum
- Between the wall and the parietal peritoneum;
What is Mesentery:
double layer of peritoneum
What does mesentery do?
Supports intestines and �transports� vessels and nerves back and forth
Right upper quadrant houses?
- Right lobe of liver
- Pylorus of stomache
- Head of pancreas
- Right kidney
- Right suprarenal gland
- Part of ascending colon(large)
- Part of transverse colon(large)
Right lower quadrant houses?
- Mostof ileum(small)
- Part of ascendingcolon
- Right ovary
- Right uterine tube
- Part of right Ureter
- Part of right spermatic cord
- Uterus if enlarged
- Urinary bladderif very full
Left upper quadrat houses?
- Left lobe of liver
- Jejunum and proximal ileum
- Left kidney
- Left supernal gland
- Part of transverse colon
- Part of descending colon
Left lower quadrant houses?
- Part of descending colon
- Sigmoid colon
- Left ovary
- Left Ureter
- Part of left spermatic cord
- Uterus if enlarged
- Urinary bladder if very full
what is Homeostasis?
Tendency toward stability in the normal states
Internal environment--extracellular fluid?
Fluid surrounding all body cells
Locations of extracellular fluid, Within blood vessels?
Locations of extracellular fluid, Between cells in tissues
� intercellular fluid, interstitial fluid, or tissue fluid.
Blood --> capillary --> interstitial area -->blood & lymphatic system
Extracellular fluid in certain organ cavities, Central nervous system?
cerebral spinal fluid
Extracellular fluid in certain organ cavities, Synovial joints = synovial fluid
Extracellular fluid in certain organ cavities,Inner ear =
Extracellular fluid in certain organ cavities, Eyes =
Organisms in homeostasis when?
Contain optimal levels of [gasses, nutrients, ions, and water] at an optimal temperature and pressure
Whar changes optimal conditions?
Stresses change optimal conditions
What does Disturb homeostasis mean?
Event that creates an imbalance in your internal environment
What are the Types of stress the disturb homeostasis?
- Exogenous stress � temp extreme, noise, lack of O2, pressure change
- Endogenous stress � BP, tumors
What are Exogenous stressors?
temp extreme, noise, lack of O2, pressure change
What are Endogenous stress?
Ways to counteract stress and restore homeostasis is Mediated by two body systems which include?
- Nervous system = fast acting; short duration; impulses
- Endocrine system = slow acting; long duration; hormones
If response decreases the stimulus and shuts off the loop it is a
- Negative feedback
- Output of the body�counter acts�input of the stress
If response increases the stimulus and the loop is enhanced it is a
- Positive feedback
- Output of the body�intensifies�input of the stress
Plasma membrane = Plasmalemma which means?
Plasma = fluid� Lemma = Husk
Muscle cells are known as
Nerve fiber are known as
Functions of the plasma membrane?
Separates internal environments of the cell from neighboring cells and from external environment
Structural chemical components of the plasma membrane
Lipids � form a bilayer (primarily phospholipids with some cholesterol and gylcolipids
What are Phospholipids
- Molecules with a charged end (polar) and an electorally neutral or (non polar) end
- The Polar head hydrophilic and nonpolar tail hydrophobic
What is Cholesterol?
a Sterol lipid that is weakly charged;
What do cholesterol do for the plasma membrane?
- Wedges between phospholipids
- Strengthens the membrane; helps stabilize it
What are Glycoloipds?
Phospholipids and attached carbohydrate groups;
Where are glycolipids located?
only on outer membrane surface; helps form coating glycocalyx
What is a Lipid rafts?
- �Patches� of lipids, especially cholesterol;
- On outer membrane surface; may be involved in cell signaling
What do Proteins do for the plasma membrane?
� provide selective channels for transporting certain molecules binding sites; enzymes;
Integral proteins are located where ?
- Embedded in the phospholipids bilayer
- Either extend from one side to the other side of the bilayer or are closer to one side then the other
What are the Functions of integral proteins?
- Aid in forming channels thought the phospholipids bilayer
- Act as carriers
- Form receptor sites
- Help in the recognition of cells, foreign substances, hormones, nutrients�
Peripheral proteins are located where?
Loosely bond to phospholipids surface
What are the Functions of peripheral proteins?
- May act as:
- Structural components
What is the Fluid mosaic model
discribes the structure of the cell membrane
Functions of a cell membrane
- *Provide a flexible boundary that encloses cellular contents and separates them from the environment
- *Facilitates contact
- *Provides receptors for hormones, chemicals, nutrients and antibodies
- *Mediates the entrance and exit of materials. It has a selective permeability.
What is selective permeability?
Permits certain substances to enter/exit the cell but restricts passage of other materials
item can cross
Factors affecting permeability include:
- *Size of molecule
- Large will not pass
- *Solubility in lipid
- Greater lipid solubility, the greater the permeability
- *Charge on molecule
- Greater the charge the lower the permeability
- *Presence of carrier molecules (integral proteins)
Movement of materials across the cell membrane, Passive process
- Move substances down or with a concentration gradient
- Movement continues until no net movement (reaches equilibrium)
- Simple diffusion
- Substances move from the higher concentration area to the area of lower concentration
- Movement continues until substances reach an equilibrium; no net movement
- Diffusion of O2and CO2 in the lungs and body tissues
- Substances move down a concentration gradient
- Involved integral proteins (channel mediated or carried mediated)
- Lipid insoluble molecules may be transported in this way (sugars)
Movement of water down a concentration gradient; no energy expended, water passes thought the channels but is not �carried� by the integral proteins.
Erythrocytes and normal saline solution (0.85%)
- solution where the total [h2O molecules + solute molecules] are equal on both sides of the membrane.
- No net movement of H2O is what kind of a
Erythrocytes and 10% salt solution 10% salt solution is __________ as compared the erythrocyte; Movement of h2o out of the cell; Cell shrinks
Erythrocytes and distilled water Distilled h2o is a _______ solution as compared to the erythrocyte Movement of water into the cell Cell will swell and rupture
Filtration can be done by
- *Movement of substances down a concentration gradient; �forced diffusion�
- *Passage of solvents and solutes across a semi permeable membrane as a result of a mechanical force (gravity or hydrostatic pressure)
- *Mechanism for molecules leaving the blood capillaries
Active Processes is when
- Substances moved against or up a concentration gradient with the expenditure of energy
- From a lower concentration to a higher concentration. ATP (ATPase^)? ADP + pi + Energy
- *Materials are moved against their concentration gradient
- *Energy is used and integral proteins are involved
- *Important mechanism for maintaining [ions] within cells i.e. Sodium Potassium pump
Bulk Transport � Vesicular Transport
*Transports large particles of macromolecules (uses energy)
- Export of substances from the cell
- Secretion of hormones and neuro transmitters
- Sometimes excretion of waste materials
- Substances are taken into the cell from the outside
- As substances are brought into the cell, the plasma membrane surrounds the substance. It then pinches off from the rest of the membrane to form a �sac� around the substance.
- Cell eating; engulfs solids
- Pseudo podia surrounds the particle. It engulfs it and closes off, then the phagocytic vacuole pinches off and the contents of the vacuole are held or broken down
- Cell drinking; Engulfs fluids
- No Pseudo Podia; Membrane invaginates. It takes the fluid inside the cell
- is For hormones, lipoproteins, Iron.
- No pseudopodia are formed/
- Forms a �Coated Vesicle�
Cellular material between the cell membrane and the nucleus
- *Thick, semitransparent, elastic fluid
- *Suspends the other elements
- *Includes: Water (75-90%), Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, & inorganic substances
Specialized parts of a tissue cell that perform some individual functions
Lack their own membrane; Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, Centrioles
Have their own membrane; Mitochondria, Golgi Complex, ER, Lysosomes, Perixisomes
- Chemicals substances that is present in the cell
- Example: Stored nutrients; Glycogen and Lipids
- Pigments; Melanin
General functions of the cytoplasm
Provide the site for the cell function where most cell functions or activities occur
What are Organelles �Little Organs�
Specialized part of a tissue cell that performs some individual function
Organelles Includes 2 types of what?
membranous organelles and nonmembranous organelles
What is a Nucleus?
- Spherical, oval or elongated in shape; usually one per cell; has four components
- *Nuclear envelope or nuclear membrane is a
- Double membrane barrier of the nucleus
- *Outer layer may be continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and/or studded with ribosomes
- *Inner layer may have an associated layer of protein filaments (contributes to the shape of the nucleus)
- *Perinuclear space � space between the two layers
- openings that pass through the nuclear envelope
- Permit communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus
- *Spherical structure within the nucleus; one or two per cell
- *Not membrane bound
- *Site of RNA synthesis and storage
- *Fluid which suspends the nucleolus and chromatin
- *Includes proteins, metabolites, ions and a nucleoskeleton
- *coiled strands of DNA bound to basic proteins (histones)
- When a cell is ready to divide, chromatin coils and condenses to form chromosomes
Functions of nucleus:
contains the cell�s genetic material and directs all cell activities
- *Not membrane bound
- *Ribosomal RNA + protein
- *2 subunits if unequal size
- * �Free� ribosomes
� protein synthesis (use inside the cell)
Attach to other organelles; protein synthesis (Export)
Membranous network of tubular channels � system of paired membranes
2 types of ER
- Granular (RER)
- Agranular (SER)
Functions of the RER
- Modifies proteins
- Makes proteins for export from the cell
- Makes components of the membrane
- Primarily protein synthesis and membrane production
Functions of the SER
- Lipid metabolism, cholesterol synthesis...
- Makes steroid based hormones
- Detoxification of drugs
- Absorption, breakdown, and transports of fats (intestine)
- Affects calcium ions availability in sarcoplasm �Sarcoplasmic Reticulum�
- Series of flattened sacs with expanded vesicles near/at their ends
- Stacks sacs = �cisternae�
3 types goigi based on function:
Cis, medial and Trans.
What does the goigi do?
Acts as a major processing center for proteins and membranes (made by RER) Change, concentrate, and package proteins and membranes. For export and in cell use.
- *Rod like organelles enclosed by two membranes
- *Outer membrane is smooth
- *Inner membrane has folds called Cristae
- Matrix: Gel like material within the mitochondrion
- Numerous in active cells
Functions of mitochondria?
Generate or produce ATP & metabolic water
Membrane bound sphere; contains digestive enzymes
Functions of lysosomes?
- Digest: worn out organelles, particles engulfed by cell
- Participate in a variety of cell functions
- Glycogen breakdown; bone resorbtion
- Remove non useful tissues; menses
- Digest the cell itself f- autolysis
- *Membrane bound sphere
- *Contains powerful digestive enzymes � detoxify harmful substances
- Free radicals ^Oxidases ? hydrogen peroxide ^catalase ? Water
- *Abundant in hepatocytes and kidney cells
- *Looks like a small lysosome
- *Cytoskeleton element
- *Thread-like; occur in bundles; not membrane bound
2 common types of microfilaments include?
Actin & Myosin (types of proteins)
Functions of microfilaments?
- Give cells shape and support
- Muscular cells contraction
- Cellular movement and change shape
- *Cytoskeleton element
- *Hollow unbranches; dispersed in the cytoplasm; not membrane bound
- *Tubulin � protein
Functions of microtubules?
- Gives the cell shape and support
- Helps form cilia, flagella, Centrioles and mitotic spindle apparatus
- Conduction channels?
- *Dense area near the nucleus; not membrane bound
- *Contains 2 Centrioles
- Cylindrical structure composed of microtubules
- Contains their own DNA
- Important in cell division
Cilia (type of surface modification or cellular extension)
- Cytoplasmic projections (relatively short)
- Converted by the cell membrane core of microtubule
- Moves substances along cell surface
Flagella (type of surface modification or cellular extension)
- Cytoplasmic projections (relatively long)
- Coveered by the cell membrane; core of microtubules
- Move entire cell
Microvilli (type of surface modification or cellular extension)
- Cytoplasmic projections (relatively short)
- Covered by cell membrane; core of microfilaments
- Absorption, export
- *Any foreign or heterogeneous substances contained in a cell; not introduced as trauma
- *Diverse group of materials
- *Storage materials; glycogen, lipids;
- *Pigments; melanin � protects from UV light
- *Usually produced by the cells
- *Body fluids, cellular secretions, and framework (matrix) in which cells are embedded
- *Outside the cells
Example of matrix components, Hyaluronic acid
- Viscous, fluid-like material
- Found in many tissues
Functions of hyaluronic acid?
Binds cells, lubricates joints, maintains eyeball shape, and provides a barrier
Example f matrix components, Chondrotin sulfate
- Jelly like material
- Found in bone and cartilage
Functions of chondrotin sulfate?
support & adhesiveness
Example of matrix components, Connective tissue fibers
Provides support and strength to tissues
3 types of connective tissues?
- Collagen fiver (pink) � strength; tendons
- Elastic fibers (black/purple) � stretch; aorta
- Reticular fibers � forms a 3-d meshwork that holds the cells within an organ; lymph node.
Modification of he cell surface & plasma membrane include 6 things which are?
Microvilli, cilia, flagella, sereocilia, junctional complexes, myelin sheath.
- *Small finger like projections of the cell
- *Core of microfilaments
- *Absorbtion and export
- *Increase surface area
- *Long branching, slender projections
- *Core of microfilaments
Junctional complexes (membrane junctions)
- *Many specific types
- *All hold cells together
- *Other functions related to the structure
- *Gap junction
- *Specialization of the cell membrane of special cells in the nervous system
- *Insulates axolemma
- Cell membrane of axon
group of similar cells and their intercellular substance. That functions to perform a specialized activity.
- *Non living
- *Secreted and maintained by cells
Epithelial Tissue Has a free surface and there are 2 types
Covering and lining, and granular.
Covering and lining epithelial do what?
- Cover body and organ surface
- Line body and organ cavities
Granular epithelial tissues does what?
Connective tissue is composed of what?
*Cells, fibers, ground substance
Funcion of connective tissue?
*Supports and protects the body, bind structures together
- *Contractile tissue
- *Excitable and conductile tissue
- *Initiation and transmission of nerve impulses
tissue composed of closely packed cells with little or in intercellular substance
2 types based on function
Characteristics of all epithelial tissue
- *Free surface (skin, cavity lumen)
- *Cells are tightly packed and held together by junctional complexes; little to no intercellular material; avascular; good regenerative ability
General functions of epithelial tissue
*Protection, absorption, secretion, excretion�
� single layer of cells
� many layers of cells
� all cells touching the BL but only some cells reach the free surface
� as tall as it is wide
� taller then wide
� shape changes as organ stretches or relaxes
Simple squamous epithelium
- *Bouman�s capsule (kidney), Alveoli (lung), endothelium (blood vessels)
- *Functions: Filtration, diffusion, secretion.
Simple cuboidal epithelium
- *Renal tubules; ducts of small glands�
- *Function: secretion and absorption
Simple columnar epithelium
- *Lines stomach to anal canal, gall bladder;
- *Function: absorption and secretion
Stratified squamous epithelium
(keratinized (cells at FS lack nucleolus), nonkeratinized (cells at FS have nuclei))
� Epidermis of skin
� Lines mouth and esophagus
Function of stratified squamous epithelium:
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
- *Usually two rows of cells
- *Ducts of sweat glands, rare
- *Function: Lining
Stratified columnar epithelium
- *Usually 2-3 rows of cells, rare
- *Lines larger ducts
- *Function: Lining and Secretion?
Stratified transitional epithelium
- *Cell shape at FS changes
- *Urinary bladder
- *Function: permits distension (stretching)
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium (ciliated or with stereo cilia)
*All cells touch the BL but they do not all reach the FS
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Ciliated
- � Trachea
- *Function: Lining, secretion, and moves materials over the free surface
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Stereo cilia
- � epididymis
- *Function: Lining, secretion, absorption
- *Specialized for secretion
- *Synthesized �secretions� � extracellular
- *Compartments (duct, body surface, blood)
2 types of glands
- *Exocrine glands
- Secretes directly to body surface from the duct
- *Endocrine glands
- Hormones � blood
Secretes directly to body surface from the duct
- *Hormones � blood
- *No ducts involces in hormone transport
- *Pancreas � endo & exo
Functional classification of exocrine glands; Merocrine Gland
- Without loss of any part of the cell
- Most exocrine glands
Functional classification of exocrine glands; Holocrine Gland
- Entire cell and its products are released
- Sebaceous gland
Functional classification of exocrine glands; Apocrine Gland
- Product is released with some of its apical cytoplasm
- Some sweat glands (axilla, genitalia and areolae)
Structural classification of Exocrine Glands
- *Unicellular gland
- E.g. Goblet cell ? secretes mucus
- *Multicellular glands (with ducts)
Do the ducts branch?
- *Unbranched-------? simple
- *Branched ------? compound
What is the shape of the gland�s secretory potion?
- *Alveolar or acinar (sac = acinus or alveolus)
Single unbranched duct + secratory protein that has a linear aggangemens of its cells.
Intestinal gland. � Simple tubular gland.
Single unbranched duct + twisted arrangement of the linear shapped secratory protein.
Eccrine sweat gland. - Simple coiled tubular gland.
Single, unbrandched duct + two/or more �linear� secratory protein portions
Gastric gland � simple branched tubular gland
Single, unbranched duct + �sac like� secretory protein
Simple alveolar gland
Single unbranched dubt with two/or more �sac like� secretory proteins draining into the duct
Sabecious gland � simple branched alveolar gland
Hierachy of ducts (i.e. small ducts draining into medium-sized ducts daining into larger ducts) + linear secratory protein
Brunners gland (in duodenum) � compound tubular gland
Hierarchy of ducts (i.e. small ducts draining into medium-sized ducts draining into larger ducts) + sac like secratory protein
Exocring pancreas - Compound alveolar gland
Hierachy of ducts (i.e. small ducts draining into medium-sized ducts daining into larger ducts) + secratory proteins with both shapes
Salivary glands � compound tubule alveolar gland
Connective Tissue; General Characteristics
- *Diverse group
- *Consists of:
- *Cells, fibers, ground substance, and matrix.
Functions of CT?
- *Provides structure
- Capsule of organs; internal framework of organs and body.
- E.g. bone, cartilage
- Phagocytic cells; pplasma cells-? antibodies
- *Medium for diffusion
- Amorphous, colorless, transparent and homogenous material
- Function: Filler, lubricant, barrier, medium for diffusion.
- Examples � hylauronic acid and chondrotin sulfate
Fibers - 3 types?
Collagenous fiber, elastic fiber, reticular fiber
- Collagen; synthesized by many cells
- Inelastic but slightely flexible
- Elastin; synthesized by fibroblasts
- Tinner then collagen; form irregular networks
- Highly flexible
- Collagen + glycoprotein
- Very thin, branching fibers; forms a �reticulum� � 3-D lattice that provides internal support (for an organ)
- Produced by fibroblasts and reticular cells
- Wound healing/ repair
Connective tissue cells; Fibroblasts
- Most common connective tissue type
- Flattened cell with branching processes; large somewhat flattened nucleus
- Synthesized fibers and ground substamce (structural function)
- Important in tissue regeneration
Connective tissue cells; Macrophage
- Irregular shape; membrane has surface folding; large eccentrically placed nucleus
- Phagocytic cell (defense function)
- Present in most organs and become very active and more numerous in areas of inflammation
Large oval/round cell; centrally placed nucleus; lost of cytoplasmic granules
- *Herpain = anti coagulant
- *Histamine = vasodilater; increased capillary permeability
Release pharmacologically active substances
- *Prevent blood clotting bessels
- *Increase vessel permeability; may be important in the normal functioning vessels
- *Actively involved in sensitivity reactions
- Ovoid cell; eccentrically placed, clockfaced nucleus
- Numerous in sites of bacterial penetration and chronic inflammation
- Produces antibodies (defense against antigens)
- Fat cell � alone or in groups
- Energy reservoir � stores lipids
- White adiocyte � single lipid droplet; large cell; flattened. Peripherally placed nucleus
- bown adipocyte � multiple lipid drop; small cell; centrally placed nucleus
Leukocyte - white blood cells
- Eosinophil, basophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte
- May or may not include:
- Specific granules in cytoplasm
- A multibodied nucleus
- Migrate across capillary wall into the eusrrounding connective tiussue
Types of connective tissue
- *Embryonic connective tissue
- *Adult CT
- *Primarily in the embryo or fetus
- *Mesenchymal cells embedded in a fluid substance � all CT in embryonic period
- *Differentiates into all other CT
- *Can persist in adult: around blood vessels
- Mesenchyme cells --> fibroblast
Wharton�s jelly or mucous connective tissue
- Only in fetus --> unbilical cord
- Abundance of ground substance ---> + collagen fiber and fibroblasts
Adult connective tissue - Loose Connetive tissue or areolar connective tissue
- *Loosely arranged fibers and cells in a semifluid ground substance
- *Strength, elasticity and support
- *Papillary layer of dermis; hypodermis;
- *Lamina propria; around nerves and blood vessels
- *Well vascularized
- *Specialized form of loost CT
- *Primarily adipocytes; stores lipid/fat droplets
- *White adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue
- *Energy reserve, support, protection and thermoregulation
- *WAT � hypodermis, joints, heart surface
- *BAT � limited
Dense connective tissue
- *Densly packed fibers with less ground substance than in loose CT
- *Collagenious fiber
Dense regular connective tissue
- *Collagen fibers in the same direction; fibroblasts in rows between fibers; ground substance present
- In areas of unidirectional tensions
� flat band of CT, connects either - muscle to muscle or muccle to bone
Dense irregular connective tissue
- *Collagen fibers in many directions; scattered cells; ground substance present
- *In areas of multidimensional tensions
- *Fascia, capsules of organs; reticular layer of dermis; pericardium � cartilage, periosteum - bone
Elastic connective tissue
- *Predominately elastic fibers; fibroblasts & Ground substance
- *In areas requiring some degree of stretching
- *Walls of large arteries, larynx, trachea. Some broncihial tubes
Reticular connective tissue
- *Predominately reticular fibers; reticular cells, fibroblasts, and ground substance
- Forms the stroma in some organs
- Spleen, liver, lymphnodes
- Provides strength and support
� supporting component of an organ (CT)
� functional component of an organ (epithelium)
Adult connective tissue
- � cartilage
- - Chondrocyte - mature cartliage cell
- - Lacuna
- - matrix of ground substance with a dense network of fibers
- - Perichondrium
- - avascualr tissue
General structure of Adult CT?
- Chondrocyte � mature cartilage cell
- Isogenous group or cell nest
- 2 or more chondrocytes in same lacuna
� space in matrix that houses the cell
- *Primarily collagen fibers; scattered chondrocytes
- *Most abundant form of cartilage
- Articular cartilage, costal cartilage, wa in upper respiratory tract organs, embryo skin
- *Flexible but provides support
- *Has ability to withstand greater stress and compression that hyaline cartilage
- *Primarily collagenous fivers in bundles or rows (herring bone pattern);chondrocytes in rows
- *No true perichondrium
- *Support and fusion
- e.g. Intebral disc, menisci of knee, pubic symphesis
- *Primarily elastic fibers
- *Increased flexibility while maintaining strength
- e.g.External ear, eustachian tube
Major types of Membranes
� epithelial and synovial
- Epithelium + CT layer � 3 specific types
- Mucus membrane = mucosa
epithelium of membrane
- *type of epithelium varies (nonketirinized stratified squamous to simple cuboidal)
- *protects organs
Connective tissue layer of membrane
- *Loose CT
- *Lamina propria
- *Lines cavities thast open to the outside Organs in the digestive trace, respiratory tract, urinary tract and repooductive tract.
- = serosa
- Invaginated double-walled sac
Epithelium of serous
- *Simple squamous epithelium; �mesothelium�
- Secretes a lubricating fluid
Connective tissue layer of serous membrane
- Loose CT
- Not called lamina propria
- Lines cavities that o not open directly to the outside and also covers organs or structures with in that cavity
- Has parietal and visceral layer
- Pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
Cutaneous membrane Epithelium
- Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
- Epidermis of skin
Connective tissue layer of cutaneous membrane
- = dermis; has 2 parts
- *Loose CT = papillary
- *Dense irregular CT = Reticular layer
- No epithelium
- CT layer
- Loose CT + elastic fiber + specialized adipocytes
- Joint cavities
- Tendon sheaths
- Secrete synovial fluid
- Lubricates: Permits easier movement
Changes in a tissue do to disease
� at the site of the disease
� far away from the site of the disease
Ways of change in tissue pathology; Atrophy
- Wasting away of a tissue Result of:Change in metabolism
- Decrease of nerce impulses or blood supply
- Aging --> �Senil activity�
- Local inactivity -->�Diverse atrophy�
Ways of change in tissue pathology; Necrosis
- Tissue death with in a living body
- Result of trauma, heat or poison
- Decreased blood supply
Ways of change in tissue pathology; Somatic Death
Methods to restore homeostasis
- *Inflammation response
- *Repair response
process of replacing dead or damaged cells
Sources of new cells:
- Stroma --> supporing part of an organ (CT)
- Parenchyma --> functional part of an organ - epithelium
Quality of repair
- Parenchyma � near perfect
- Stroma � scar - fibrosis
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