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  1. Anatomy
    Greek � Ana = Up & Tome = a cutting
  2. What is anatomy?
    • The science of the structure of a living organism and the relation of its parts
    • Subdivided
  3. What is Surface morphology ?
    how internal structures relate to the skins surface
  4. What is Gross Anatomy?
  5. What is Cytology? (cytological anatomy)
  6. What is Histology? (histological)
  7. What is organology?
  8. What is Radiographic anatomy?
    internal structures as visualized by x-ray images or specialized scanning procedures.
  9. What is Neuroanaomy?
    structure of the nervous system.
  10. What is Developmental anatomy?
    changes throughout life � structural changes
  11. What is Embryology?
    developmental changes before birth
  12. What is Pathology?
    pathological � structural changes because of disease
  13. What is Comparative anatomy?
    compare structures across different organisms
  14. What is Surgical anatomy?
    gross anatomy with a twist
  15. What are the two approaches to anatomy?
    • Systemic/systematic approach
    • Regional approach � cadaver
  16. What is Physiology?
    Science of the functions of a living organism
  17. What are the "Factors" involved in physiology?
    • Physical factors (physics)
    • Chemical Factors (Chemistry)
  18. What is the Processes involved in studing physiology?
    • Sub division �System�
    • E.g. cardiovascular physiology�renal physiology�
    • Major Emphasis on cellular and muscular events
  19. Bottom line: Anatomy is the Body�s
  20. Bottom line: Physiology is the Body�s
    working Nature
  21. Principal of Complementary of Structure and Function
    • Structure --> f(x)
    • f(x)---> structure
  22. What are the Levels of structural organization
    Chemical level, Cellular level, Tissue level, organ level, system level and organism level
  23. What is the chemical level?.
    Atoms Molecules
  24. What is the Cellular Level
    • Cell = basic living structure and functional unit of the body
    • Tissue level
  25. What is the tissue level?
    Tissue = aggregate of similarly specialized cells along with the extracellular material united to perform a particular function
  26. What are the 4 basic tissues (General)
    Epithelium, Connective Tissue, Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue.
  27. What is the Epithelium?
    • covers and lines body surfaces; helps to form glands
    • Have a free surface � closely packed
  28. What is Connective Tissue, and what does it consist of?
    • binds together, defense, support to the body.
    • Consists of cells, fibers, and grond substance
  29. What is Muscle Tissue used for, what are its identifying characteristic?
    • � movement
    • Cross striations
  30. What is Nervous Tissue used for, what are its identifying characteristic?
    • - communication
    • Cells with long processes
  31. What is an Organ?
    Organ = structure with a definite form and function; composed of 2 or more tissues
  32. What is a system?
    System = a set of interconnected or interdependent organs that function together in a common purpose
  33. What is the Organism Level?
    = sum total of all structural levels working together to keep you alive
  34. Integumentary system functions include?
    forms external body covering; protection; temperature regulation; waste elimination; vitamin D synthesis
  35. Integumentary system organs/structures include?
    • Skin,
    • Hair,
    • nails,
    • Sweat glands,
    • Sebaceous glands�
  36. Skeletal system functions include?
    Supports and protects body; Leverage; Stores minerals; Blood cells form within bone cavities
  37. Skeletal system organs/structures include?
    • Bones (e.g. Frontal b., clavicle, rib�),
    • Cartilages...
    • (& Joints)
  38. Muscular system functions include?
    • Movement;
    • Thermo genesis;
    • Maintains posture
  39. Muscular system organs/structures include?
    • Skeletal muscles (e.g. deltoideus, gluteus maximus, trapezius�)
    • (smooth muscle & cardiac muscle)
  40. Nervous system functions include?
    Regulates the body activities though nerve impulse
  41. Nervous system organs/structures include?
    • Brain,
    • spinal cord,
    • cranial nerves,
    • spinal nerves,
    • sensory organs�
  42. Endocrine system functions include?
    Regulates the body activities through hormones
  43. Endocrine system organs/structures include?
    • Ovary,
    • pancreas,
    • parathyroid gland,
    • pituitary,
    • suprarenal gland,
    • testis,
    • thymus,
    • thyroid gland,
    • various endocrine cells�
  44. Cardiovascular system functions include?
    • Transports O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, etc.
    • Protects against disease and hemorrhage.
  45. Cardiovascullar system organs/structures include?
    Heart, blood vessels, Blood
  46. Lymphatic system functions include?
    • Filters body fluids;
    • Produces white blood cells;
    • Involved in immune response
  47. Lymphatic system organs/structures include?
    • Lymph nodes,
    • spleen,
    • thymus,
    • tonsil�.,
    • lymphatic vessels.
    • Lymph
  48. Respiratory system functions include?
    • Gaseous exchange;
    • Helps regulate acid/base balance of blood
  49. Respiratory system organ/structures include?
    Larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus�
  50. Digestive system functions include?
    • Physical and chemical breakdown of food;
    • absorption of food products;
    • elimination of undigested foodstuffs in feces
  51. Digestive system organ/structure includes?
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • (esophagus,
    • stomach,
    • small intestine,
    • large intestine�),
    • Gall bladder,
    • Liver,
    • Pancreas,
    • Salivary glands,
    • Teeth
  52. Urinary system functions include?
    • Elimination of nitrogenous wastes in urine;
    • regulates water, electrolyte and acid/base balance of blood.
  53. Urinary system organs/structure includes?
    • Kidney,
    • Ureter,
    • urinary bladder,
    • urethra
  54. Reproductive system functions include?
    Propagation of species
  55. Reproductive system organs/structures include?
    • Testis,
    • prostate gland,
    • penis...
    • Ovary,
    • uterine tube,
    • uterus�
  56. Basic survival needs include the metabloism, what is Metabolism?
    Sum of all biochemical reactions that occur within an organism, including anabolic and catabolic reactions.
  57. What is the Intake of food?
  58. What is the Breakdown of food into usable material?
  59. What is the Uptake of substances by cells?
  60. What is the Build up of absorbed substances into different materials that are required by the cells; The incorporation digested �food� into living tissues?
  61. What is the Generation of energy (cellular level)?
  62. What is the Production and release of useful substances?
  63. What is the Elimination of wastes?
  64. What is the Ability to receive and respond to stimuli?
    Excitability or irritability (responsiveness)
  65. What is the Ability to carry out the effect of a stimulus from one part of the cell to another?
  66. What is the Ability of cells or parts of cells to actively generate force to undergo shortening and changing form for movement?
  67. What is the Increase in size called?
  68. What is the Acquisition of specific function(s) and. /or structure different from the original general type?
  69. What is Either the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement; or the production of a new individual?
  70. What is the Anatomical Position?
    � standing; facing the observer; upper limbs are at the sides with palms forward; feet are forward and slightly apart.
  71. What region is Abdominal
  72. What region is Acromial
    Point of shoulder
  73. What region is Antebrachial
  74. What region is Antecubital
    Front of elbow
  75. What region is Appendicular
  76. What region is Axial
    Main body axis
  77. What region is Axillary
  78. What region is Brachial
  79. What region is Buccal
  80. What region is Calcaneal
  81. What region is Carpal
  82. What region is Cephalic
  83. What region is Cervical
  84. What region is Coxal
  85. What region is Cranial
    Part of the skull that houses the brain
  86. What region is Crural
  87. What region is Digital
    Fingers or toes
  88. What region is Dorsal or dorsum
  89. What region is Facial
    Part of the skull that forms the face
  90. What region is Femoral
  91. What region is Frontal
  92. What region is Gluteal
  93. What region is Hallux
    Big toe
  94. What region is Inguinal
  95. What region is Lumbar
    Loin (lower back)
  96. What region is Mammary
  97. What region is Manual or manus
  98. What region is Mental
  99. What region is Metacarpal
    Area of hand between wrist and fingers
  100. What region is Metatarsal
    Area of foot between ankle and toes
  101. What region is Nasal
  102. What region is Occipital
    Back of head; base of skull
  103. What region is Olecranal
    Back of elbow
  104. What region is Oral
  105. What region is Orbital
  106. What region is Otic
  107. What region is Palmar
  108. What region is Patellar
    Anterior knee
  109. What region is Pedal
  110. What region is Pelvic
  111. What region is Perineal
    Region between anus and external genitalia
  112. What region is Peroneal or fibular
    Side of leg
  113. What region is Phalangeal
    Fingers or toes
  114. What region is Plantar
    Sole of foot
  115. What region is Pollex
  116. What region is Popliteal
    Back of knee
  117. What region is Pubic
    Genital region
  118. What region is Sacral
    Posterior area between the hips
  119. What region is Scapular
    Shoulder blade area
  120. What region is Sternal
  121. What region is Sural
    Calf region
  122. What region is Tarsal
  123. What region is Thoracic
  124. What region is Trunk
    The body excluding the head, neck and limbs
  125. What region is Umbilical
    Navel region
  126. What region is Vertebral
    Spinal column region
  127. what do Planes of the body refer to?
    Imaginary flat lines that passes thought the body and/or its parts
  128. When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions, then it is called a ?
    Frontal or coronal plane
  129. When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into equal right and let portions, then it is called a?
    Midsagittal plane
  130. When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into unequal right and let portions, then it is called a
    Sagittal or parasagittal plane
  131. When a plane passes through the body in a way that �separates� its parts into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) portions, then it is called a
    Transverse or horizontal plane
  132. What do Sections though a body refer to?
    Actual cut made along a plane
  133. If a cut is made along (parallel to) the long axis of the body or part then it is called a
    Longitudinal section
  134. A frontal section is a
    Longitudinal section that passes along a frontal plane
  135. A Midsagittal section is a
    Is a longitudinal section that passes along a Midsagittal plane
  136. A Sagittal section is a
    Longitudinal section that passes along a Sagittal plane
  137. If a cut is made perpendicular to the long axis of the body or a part, than it is called a
    Transverse or cross section
  138. A cross section passes along a
    Transverse plane
  139. If a cut is made at an angel (but not 90deg), then it is called an oblique section.
  140. Anterior means?
    Near to or the front of the body
  141. Ventral means?
    Near to or at the front of the body
  142. Posterior means?
    Near to or at the back of the body
  143. Dorsal means?
    Near to or at the back of the body
  144. Lateral means?
    Farther from the midline of the body or structure
  145. Medial means?
    Nearer to the midline of the body or structure
  146. Median means?
    Lying In the midline � central position
  147. Intermediate means?
    Between two structures
  148. Superior means?
    Toward the head or upper part of the structure
  149. Cepahlic means?
    Toward the head or upper part of the structure
  150. Cranial means?
    Toward the head or upper part of the structure
  151. Inferior means?
    Away from the head, closer to the lower part
  152. Caudal means?
    Away from the head, closer to the lower part
  153. Proximal means?
    Nearer to the point of origin or trunk attachment
  154. Distal means?
    Farther to the point of origin or trunk attachment
  155. Superficial means?
    Toward or on the body surface
  156. Deep means?
    Away from the body surface
  157. Parietal?
    Pertaining to or forming the outer wall of a body cavity
  158. Visceral?
    Pertaining to or forming the outer covering of an organ within a body cavity
  159. Ipsilaterial?
    On the same side
  160. Contralaterial?
    On the opposite side
  161. Prone?
    The body when lying face downward
  162. Supine?
    The body when lying face upward
  163. The Dorsal body cavity holds the ?
    cranial cavity and the vetebral cavity
  164. The Cranial cavity contains?
    • Cranial bones (skull)
    • Brain
  165. The Veterbreal canal contains?
    • Vertebrate
    • Spinal cord
  166. The Ventral body cavity contains the
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Abdominoplevic cavity
  167. The Mediastinum is what? and what does it contain?
    • Region of the thoracic between the lungs;
    • between the sternum and vertebral column;
    • contains the trachea, bronchial tubes, esophagus, heart, vessels and CT
  168. The Serous membrane within the ventral body cavity included the :
    • Pleura
    • Pericardium
    • Peritoneum
  169. What is the serous membrane?
    a thin double-layer membrane with a Fluid filled cavity between the layers (visceral layer and parietal layer)
  170. Retroperitoneal means what and where is it?
    • behind the peritoneum
    • Between the wall and the parietal peritoneum;
  171. What is Mesentery:
    double layer of peritoneum
  172. What does mesentery do?
    Supports intestines and �transports� vessels and nerves back and forth
  173. Right upper quadrant houses?
    • Right lobe of liver
    • Pylorus of stomache
    • Gallbladder
    • Duodenum
    • Head of pancreas
    • Right kidney
    • Right suprarenal gland
    • Part of ascending colon(large)
    • Part of transverse colon(large)
  174. Right lower quadrant houses?
    • Cecum(large)
    • Appendix
    • Mostof ileum(small)
    • Part of ascendingcolon
    • Right ovary
    • Right uterine tube
    • Part of right Ureter
    • Part of right spermatic cord
    • Uterus if enlarged
    • Urinary bladderif very full
  175. Left upper quadrat houses?
    • Left lobe of liver
    • Spleen
    • Stomach
    • Jejunum and proximal ileum
    • Pancreas
    • Left kidney
    • Left supernal gland
    • Part of transverse colon
    • Part of descending colon
  176. Left lower quadrant houses?
    • Part of descending colon
    • Sigmoid colon
    • Left ovary
    • Left Ureter
    • Part of left spermatic cord
    • Uterus if enlarged
    • Urinary bladder if very full
  177. what is Homeostasis?
    Tendency toward stability in the normal states
  178. Internal environment--extracellular fluid?
    Fluid surrounding all body cells
  179. Locations of extracellular fluid, Within blood vessels?
    � plasma
  180. Locations of extracellular fluid, Between cells in tissues
    � intercellular fluid, interstitial fluid, or tissue fluid.
  181. Blood --> capillary --> interstitial area -->blood & lymphatic system
  182. Extracellular fluid in certain organ cavities, Central nervous system?
    cerebral spinal fluid
  183. Extracellular fluid in certain organ cavities, Synovial joints = synovial fluid
  184. Extracellular fluid in certain organ cavities,Inner ear =
  185. Extracellular fluid in certain organ cavities, Eyes =
    ocular fluids
  186. Organisms in homeostasis when?
    Contain optimal levels of [gasses, nutrients, ions, and water] at an optimal temperature and pressure
  187. Whar changes optimal conditions?
    Stresses change optimal conditions
  188. What does Disturb homeostasis mean?
    Event that creates an imbalance in your internal environment
  189. What are the Types of stress the disturb homeostasis?
    • Exogenous stress � temp extreme, noise, lack of O2, pressure change
    • Endogenous stress � BP, tumors
  190. What are Exogenous stressors?
    temp extreme, noise, lack of O2, pressure change
  191. What are Endogenous stress?
    BP, tumors
  192. Ways to counteract stress and restore homeostasis is Mediated by two body systems which include?
    • Nervous system = fast acting; short duration; impulses
    • Endocrine system = slow acting; long duration; hormones
  193. If response decreases the stimulus and shuts off the loop it is a
    • Negative feedback
    • Output of the body�counter acts�input of the stress
  194. If response increases the stimulus and the loop is enhanced it is a
    • Positive feedback
    • Output of the body�intensifies�input of the stress
  195. Plasma membrane = Plasmalemma which means?
    Plasma = fluid� Lemma = Husk
  196. Muscle cells are known as
  197. Nerve fiber are known as
  198. Functions of the plasma membrane?
    Separates internal environments of the cell from neighboring cells and from external environment
  199. Structural chemical components of the plasma membrane
    Lipids � form a bilayer (primarily phospholipids with some cholesterol and gylcolipids
  200. What are Phospholipids
    • Molecules with a charged end (polar) and an electorally neutral or (non polar) end
    • The Polar head hydrophilic and nonpolar tail hydrophobic
  201. What is Cholesterol?
    a Sterol lipid that is weakly charged;
  202. What do cholesterol do for the plasma membrane?
    • Wedges between phospholipids
    • Strengthens the membrane; helps stabilize it
  203. What are Glycoloipds?
    Phospholipids and attached carbohydrate groups;
  204. Where are glycolipids located?
    only on outer membrane surface; helps form coating glycocalyx
  205. What is a Lipid rafts?
    • �Patches� of lipids, especially cholesterol;
    • On outer membrane surface; may be involved in cell signaling
  206. What do Proteins do for the plasma membrane?
    � provide selective channels for transporting certain molecules binding sites; enzymes;
  207. Integral proteins are located where ?
    • Embedded in the phospholipids bilayer
    • Either extend from one side to the other side of the bilayer or are closer to one side then the other
  208. What are the Functions of integral proteins?
    • Aid in forming channels thought the phospholipids bilayer
    • Act as carriers
    • Form receptor sites
    • Help in the recognition of cells, foreign substances, hormones, nutrients�
  209. Peripheral proteins are located where?
    Loosely bond to phospholipids surface
  210. What are the Functions of peripheral proteins?
    • May act as:
    • Enzymes
    • Structural components
  211. What is the Fluid mosaic model
    discribes the structure of the cell membrane
  212. Functions of a cell membrane
    • *Provide a flexible boundary that encloses cellular contents and separates them from the environment
    • *Facilitates contact
    • *Provides receptors for hormones, chemicals, nutrients and antibodies
    • *Mediates the entrance and exit of materials. It has a selective permeability.
  213. What is selective permeability?
    Permits certain substances to enter/exit the cell but restricts passage of other materials
  214. Permeable means?
    item can cross
  215. Factors affecting permeability include:
    • *Size of molecule
    • Large will not pass
    • *Solubility in lipid
    • Greater lipid solubility, the greater the permeability
    • *Charge on molecule
    • Greater the charge the lower the permeability
    • *Presence of carrier molecules (integral proteins)
  216. Movement of materials across the cell membrane, Passive process
    • Move substances down or with a concentration gradient
    • Movement continues until no net movement (reaches equilibrium)
    • Simple diffusion
  217. Simple diffusion:
    • Substances move from the higher concentration area to the area of lower concentration
    • Movement continues until substances reach an equilibrium; no net movement
    • Diffusion of O2and CO2 in the lungs and body tissues
  218. Facilitated diffusion:
    • Substances move down a concentration gradient
    • Involved integral proteins (channel mediated or carried mediated)
    • Lipid insoluble molecules may be transported in this way (sugars)
  219. Osmosis
    Movement of water down a concentration gradient; no energy expended, water passes thought the channels but is not �carried� by the integral proteins.
  220. Erythrocytes and normal saline solution (0.85%)
    • solution where the total [h2O molecules + solute molecules] are equal on both sides of the membrane.
    • No net movement of H2O is what kind of a
  221. Erythrocytes and 10% salt solution 10% salt solution is __________ as compared the erythrocyte; Movement of h2o out of the cell; Cell shrinks
  222. Erythrocytes and distilled water Distilled h2o is a _______ solution as compared to the erythrocyte Movement of water into the cell Cell will swell and rupture
  223. Filtration can be done by
    • *Movement of substances down a concentration gradient; �forced diffusion�
    • *Passage of solvents and solutes across a semi permeable membrane as a result of a mechanical force (gravity or hydrostatic pressure)
    • *Mechanism for molecules leaving the blood capillaries
  224. Active Processes is when
    • Substances moved against or up a concentration gradient with the expenditure of energy
    • From a lower concentration to a higher concentration. ATP (ATPase^)? ADP + pi + Energy
  225. Active Transport
    • *Materials are moved against their concentration gradient
    • *Energy is used and integral proteins are involved
    • *Important mechanism for maintaining [ions] within cells i.e. Sodium Potassium pump
  226. Bulk Transport � Vesicular Transport
    *Transports large particles of macromolecules (uses energy)
  227. Exocytosis:
    • Export of substances from the cell
    • Secretion of hormones and neuro transmitters
    • Sometimes excretion of waste materials
  228. Endocytosis:
    • Substances are taken into the cell from the outside
    • As substances are brought into the cell, the plasma membrane surrounds the substance. It then pinches off from the rest of the membrane to form a �sac� around the substance.
  229. Phagocytosis
    • Cell eating; engulfs solids
    • Pseudo podia surrounds the particle. It engulfs it and closes off, then the phagocytic vacuole pinches off and the contents of the vacuole are held or broken down
  230. Pinocytosis
    • Cell drinking; Engulfs fluids
    • No Pseudo Podia; Membrane invaginates. It takes the fluid inside the cell
  231. Receptor-mediated Endocytos
    • is For hormones, lipoproteins, Iron.
    • No pseudopodia are formed/
    • Forms a �Coated Vesicle�
  232. Cytoplasm
    Cellular material between the cell membrane and the nucleus
  233. Cytosol
    • *Thick, semitransparent, elastic fluid
    • *Suspends the other elements
    • *Includes: Water (75-90%), Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, & inorganic substances
  234. Organelles
    Specialized parts of a tissue cell that perform some individual functions
  235. Non-membranous organelles
    Lack their own membrane; Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, Centrioles
  236. Membranous organelles
    Have their own membrane; Mitochondria, Golgi Complex, ER, Lysosomes, Perixisomes
  237. Inclusions
    • Chemicals substances that is present in the cell
    • Example: Stored nutrients; Glycogen and Lipids
    • Pigments; Melanin
  238. General functions of the cytoplasm
    Provide the site for the cell function where most cell functions or activities occur
  239. What are Organelles �Little Organs�
    Specialized part of a tissue cell that performs some individual function
  240. Organelles Includes 2 types of what?
    membranous organelles and nonmembranous organelles
  241. What is a Nucleus?
    • Spherical, oval or elongated in shape; usually one per cell; has four components
    • *Nuclear envelope or nuclear membrane is a
    • Double membrane barrier of the nucleus
    • *Outer layer may be continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and/or studded with ribosomes
    • *Inner layer may have an associated layer of protein filaments (contributes to the shape of the nucleus)
    • *Perinuclear space � space between the two layers
  242. Nuclear pores:
    • openings that pass through the nuclear envelope
    • Permit communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus
  243. Nucleolus
    • *Spherical structure within the nucleus; one or two per cell
    • *Not membrane bound
    • *Site of RNA synthesis and storage
  244. Nucleoplasm
    • *Fluid which suspends the nucleolus and chromatin
    • *Includes proteins, metabolites, ions and a nucleoskeleton
  245. Chromatin
    • *coiled strands of DNA bound to basic proteins (histones)
    • When a cell is ready to divide, chromatin coils and condenses to form chromosomes
  246. Functions of nucleus:
    contains the cell�s genetic material and directs all cell activities
  247. Ribosomes
    • *Not membrane bound
    • *Ribosomal RNA + protein
    • *2 subunits if unequal size
    • * �Free� ribosomes
  248. Free Ribosomes
    � protein synthesis (use inside the cell)
  249. �Bound� ribosomes
    Attach to other organelles; protein synthesis (Export)
  250. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Membranous network of tubular channels � system of paired membranes
  251. 2 types of ER
    • Granular (RER)
    • Agranular (SER)
  252. Functions of the RER
    • Modifies proteins
    • Makes proteins for export from the cell
    • Makes components of the membrane
    • Primarily protein synthesis and membrane production
  253. Functions of the SER
    • Lipid metabolism, cholesterol synthesis...
    • Makes steroid based hormones
    • Detoxification of drugs
    • Absorption, breakdown, and transports of fats (intestine)
    • Affects calcium ions availability in sarcoplasm �Sarcoplasmic Reticulum�
  254. Golgi complex
    • Series of flattened sacs with expanded vesicles near/at their ends
    • Stacks sacs = �cisternae�
  255. 3 types goigi based on function:
    Cis, medial and Trans.
  256. What does the goigi do?
    Acts as a major processing center for proteins and membranes (made by RER) Change, concentrate, and package proteins and membranes. For export and in cell use.
  257. Mitochondria
    • *Rod like organelles enclosed by two membranes
    • *Outer membrane is smooth
    • *Inner membrane has folds called Cristae
    • Matrix: Gel like material within the mitochondrion
    • Numerous in active cells
  258. Functions of mitochondria?
    Generate or produce ATP & metabolic water
  259. Lysosomes
    Membrane bound sphere; contains digestive enzymes
  260. Functions of lysosomes?
    • Digest: worn out organelles, particles engulfed by cell
    • Participate in a variety of cell functions
    • Glycogen breakdown; bone resorbtion
    • Remove non useful tissues; menses
    • Digest the cell itself f- autolysis
  261. Perixisomes
    • *Membrane bound sphere
    • *Contains powerful digestive enzymes � detoxify harmful substances
    • Free radicals ^Oxidases ? hydrogen peroxide ^catalase ? Water
    • *Abundant in hepatocytes and kidney cells
    • *Looks like a small lysosome
  262. Microfilaments
    • *Cytoskeleton element
    • *Thread-like; occur in bundles; not membrane bound
  263. 2 common types of microfilaments include?
    Actin & Myosin (types of proteins)
  264. Functions of microfilaments?
    • Give cells shape and support
    • Muscular cells contraction
    • Cellular movement and change shape
  265. Microtubules
    • *Cytoskeleton element
    • *Hollow unbranches; dispersed in the cytoplasm; not membrane bound
    • *Tubulin � protein
  266. Functions of microtubules?
    • Gives the cell shape and support
    • Helps form cilia, flagella, Centrioles and mitotic spindle apparatus
    • Conduction channels?
  267. Centrosome (centrosophere)
    • *Dense area near the nucleus; not membrane bound
    • *Contains 2 Centrioles
  268. Centriole
    • Cylindrical structure composed of microtubules
    • Contains their own DNA
    • Important in cell division
  269. Cilia (type of surface modification or cellular extension)
    • Cytoplasmic projections (relatively short)
    • Converted by the cell membrane core of microtubule
    • Moves substances along cell surface
  270. Flagella (type of surface modification or cellular extension)
    • Cytoplasmic projections (relatively long)
    • Coveered by the cell membrane; core of microtubules
    • Move entire cell
  271. Microvilli (type of surface modification or cellular extension)
    • Cytoplasmic projections (relatively short)
    • Covered by cell membrane; core of microfilaments
    • Absorption, export
  272. Cell inclusions
    • *Any foreign or heterogeneous substances contained in a cell; not introduced as trauma
    • *Diverse group of materials
    • *Storage materials; glycogen, lipids;
    • *Pigments; melanin � protects from UV light
  273. Extracellular material
    • *Usually produced by the cells
    • *Body fluids, cellular secretions, and framework (matrix) in which cells are embedded
    • *Outside the cells
  274. Example of matrix components, Hyaluronic acid
    • Viscous, fluid-like material
    • Found in many tissues
  275. Functions of hyaluronic acid?
    Binds cells, lubricates joints, maintains eyeball shape, and provides a barrier
  276. Example f matrix components, Chondrotin sulfate
    • Jelly like material
    • Found in bone and cartilage
  277. Functions of chondrotin sulfate?
    support & adhesiveness
  278. Example of matrix components, Connective tissue fibers
    Provides support and strength to tissues
  279. 3 types of connective tissues?
    • Collagen fiver (pink) � strength; tendons
    • Elastic fibers (black/purple) � stretch; aorta
    • Reticular fibers � forms a 3-d meshwork that holds the cells within an organ; lymph node.
  280. Modification of he cell surface & plasma membrane include 6 things which are?
    Microvilli, cilia, flagella, sereocilia, junctional complexes, myelin sheath.
  281. Microvillies/microvilli
    • *Small finger like projections of the cell
    • *Core of microfilaments
    • *Absorbtion and export
    • *Increase surface area
  282. Stereocilia
    • *Long branching, slender projections
    • *Core of microfilaments
    • *Absorbtion
  283. Junctional complexes (membrane junctions)
    • *Many specific types
    • *All hold cells together
    • *Other functions related to the structure
    • *Desmosome
    • *Gap junction
  284. Myelin sheath
    • *Specialization of the cell membrane of special cells in the nervous system
    • *Insulates axolemma
    • Cell membrane of axon
  285. Tissue:
    group of similar cells and their intercellular substance. That functions to perform a specialized activity.
  286. Intercellular substance
    • *Non living
    • *Secreted and maintained by cells
  287. Epithelial Tissue Has a free surface and there are 2 types
    Covering and lining, and granular.
  288. Covering and lining epithelial do what?
    • Cover body and organ surface
    • Line body and organ cavities
  289. Granular epithelial tissues does what?
    Forms glands
  290. Connective tissue is composed of what?
    *Cells, fibers, ground substance
  291. Funcion of connective tissue?
    *Supports and protects the body, bind structures together
  292. Muscle tissue
    • *Contractile tissue
    • *Movement
  293. Nervous Tissue
    • *Communication
    • *Excitable and conductile tissue
    • *Initiation and transmission of nerve impulses
  294. Epithelium:
    tissue composed of closely packed cells with little or in intercellular substance
  295. 2 types based on function
    • Covering/lining
    • Glandular
  296. Characteristics of all epithelial tissue
    • *Free surface (skin, cavity lumen)
    • *Cells are tightly packed and held together by junctional complexes; little to no intercellular material; avascular; good regenerative ability
  297. General functions of epithelial tissue
    *Protection, absorption, secretion, excretion�
  298. Simple
    � single layer of cells
  299. Stratified
    � many layers of cells
  300. Pseudostratified
    � all cells touching the BL but only some cells reach the free surface
  301. Squamous
    - flat
  302. Cuboidal
    � as tall as it is wide
  303. Columnar
    � taller then wide
  304. Transitional
    � shape changes as organ stretches or relaxes
  305. Simple squamous epithelium
    • *Bouman�s capsule (kidney), Alveoli (lung), endothelium (blood vessels)
    • *Functions: Filtration, diffusion, secretion.
  306. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    • *Renal tubules; ducts of small glands�
    • *Function: secretion and absorption
  307. Simple columnar epithelium
    • *Lines stomach to anal canal, gall bladder;
    • *Function: absorption and secretion
  308. Stratified squamous epithelium
    (keratinized (cells at FS lack nucleolus), nonkeratinized (cells at FS have nuclei))
  309. Keratinized
    � Epidermis of skin
  310. Nonkeratinized
    � Lines mouth and esophagus
  311. Function of stratified squamous epithelium:
  312. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • *Usually two rows of cells
    • *Ducts of sweat glands, rare
    • *Function: Lining
  313. Stratified columnar epithelium
    • *Usually 2-3 rows of cells, rare
    • *Lines larger ducts
    • *Function: Lining and Secretion?
  314. Stratified transitional epithelium
    • *Cell shape at FS changes
    • *Urinary bladder
    • *Function: permits distension (stretching)
  315. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium (ciliated or with stereo cilia)
    *All cells touch the BL but they do not all reach the FS
  316. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Ciliated
    • � Trachea
    • *Function: Lining, secretion, and moves materials over the free surface
  317. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Stereo cilia
    • � epididymis
    • *Function: Lining, secretion, absorption
  318. Glandular Epithelium
    • *Specialized for secretion
    • *Synthesized �secretions� � extracellular
    • *Compartments (duct, body surface, blood)
  319. 2 types of glands
    • *Exocrine glands
    • Secretes directly to body surface from the duct
    • *Endocrine glands
    • Hormones � blood
  320. Exocrine glands
    Secretes directly to body surface from the duct
  321. Endocrine glands
    • *Hormones � blood
    • *No ducts involces in hormone transport
    • *Pancreas � endo & exo
  322. Functional classification of exocrine glands; Merocrine Gland
    • Without loss of any part of the cell
    • Most exocrine glands
  323. Functional classification of exocrine glands; Holocrine Gland
    • Entire cell and its products are released
    • Sebaceous gland
  324. Functional classification of exocrine glands; Apocrine Gland
    • Product is released with some of its apical cytoplasm
    • Some sweat glands (axilla, genitalia and areolae)
  325. Structural classification of Exocrine Glands
    • *Unicellular gland
    • E.g. Goblet cell ? secretes mucus
    • *Multicellular glands (with ducts)
  326. Do the ducts branch?
    • *Unbranched-------? simple
    • *Branched ------? compound
  327. Uncranched =
  328. branched =
  329. What is the shape of the gland�s secretory potion?
    • *Tubular
    • *Alveolar or acinar (sac = acinus or alveolus)
  330. Single unbranched duct + secratory protein that has a linear aggangemens of its cells.
    Intestinal gland. � Simple tubular gland.
  331. Single unbranched duct + twisted arrangement of the linear shapped secratory protein.
    Eccrine sweat gland. - Simple coiled tubular gland.
  332. Single, unbrandched duct + two/or more �linear� secratory protein portions
    Gastric gland � simple branched tubular gland
  333. Single, unbranched duct + �sac like� secretory protein
    Simple alveolar gland
  334. Single unbranched dubt with two/or more �sac like� secretory proteins draining into the duct
    Sabecious gland � simple branched alveolar gland
  335. Hierachy of ducts (i.e. small ducts draining into medium-sized ducts daining into larger ducts) + linear secratory protein
    Brunners gland (in duodenum) � compound tubular gland
  336. Hierarchy of ducts (i.e. small ducts draining into medium-sized ducts draining into larger ducts) + sac like secratory protein
    Exocring pancreas - Compound alveolar gland
  337. Hierachy of ducts (i.e. small ducts draining into medium-sized ducts daining into larger ducts) + secratory proteins with both shapes
    Salivary glands � compound tubule alveolar gland
  338. Connective Tissue; General Characteristics
    • *Diverse group
    • *Consists of:
    • *Cells, fibers, ground substance, and matrix.
  339. Functions of CT?
    • *Provides structure
    • Capsule of organs; internal framework of organs and body.
    • E.g. bone, cartilage
    • *Defense
    • Phagocytic cells; pplasma cells-? antibodies
    • *Medium for diffusion
  340. Ground Substance
    • Amorphous, colorless, transparent and homogenous material
    • Function: Filler, lubricant, barrier, medium for diffusion.
    • Examples � hylauronic acid and chondrotin sulfate
  341. Fibers - 3 types?
    Collagenous fiber, elastic fiber, reticular fiber
  342. Collagenous fiber
    • Collagen; synthesized by many cells
    • Inelastic but slightely flexible
  343. Elastic fiber
    • Elastin; synthesized by fibroblasts
    • Tinner then collagen; form irregular networks
    • Highly flexible
  344. Reticular Fiber
    • Collagen + glycoprotein
    • Very thin, branching fibers; forms a �reticulum� � 3-D lattice that provides internal support (for an organ)
    • Produced by fibroblasts and reticular cells
    • Wound healing/ repair
  345. Connective tissue cells; Fibroblasts
    • Most common connective tissue type
    • Flattened cell with branching processes; large somewhat flattened nucleus
    • Synthesized fibers and ground substamce (structural function)
    • Important in tissue regeneration
  346. Connective tissue cells; Macrophage
    • Irregular shape; membrane has surface folding; large eccentrically placed nucleus
    • Phagocytic cell (defense function)
    • Present in most organs and become very active and more numerous in areas of inflammation
  347. Mast cell
    Large oval/round cell; centrally placed nucleus; lost of cytoplasmic granules
  348. Cytoplasmic granules
    • *Herpain = anti coagulant
    • *Histamine = vasodilater; increased capillary permeability
  349. Release pharmacologically active substances
    • *Prevent blood clotting bessels
    • *Increase vessel permeability; may be important in the normal functioning vessels
    • *Actively involved in sensitivity reactions
  350. Plasma cell
    • Ovoid cell; eccentrically placed, clockfaced nucleus
    • Numerous in sites of bacterial penetration and chronic inflammation
    • Produces antibodies (defense against antigens)
  351. Adipocyte
    • Fat cell � alone or in groups
    • Energy reservoir � stores lipids
    • White adiocyte � single lipid droplet; large cell; flattened. Peripherally placed nucleus
    • bown adipocyte � multiple lipid drop; small cell; centrally placed nucleus
  352. Leukocyte - white blood cells
    • Eosinophil, basophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte
    • May or may not include:
    • Specific granules in cytoplasm
    • A multibodied nucleus
    • Migrate across capillary wall into the eusrrounding connective tiussue
    • defense
  353. Types of connective tissue
    • *Embryonic connective tissue
    • *Adult CT
  354. Embryonic CT
    • *Primarily in the embryo or fetus
    • *Mesenchyme
    • *Mesenchymal cells embedded in a fluid substance � all CT in embryonic period
    • *Differentiates into all other CT
    • *Can persist in adult: around blood vessels
    • Mesenchyme cells --> fibroblast
  355. Wharton�s jelly or mucous connective tissue
    • Only in fetus --> unbilical cord
    • Abundance of ground substance ---> + collagen fiber and fibroblasts
    • support
  356. Adult connective tissue - Loose Connetive tissue or areolar connective tissue
    • *Loosely arranged fibers and cells in a semifluid ground substance
    • *Strength, elasticity and support
    • *Papillary layer of dermis; hypodermis;
    • *Lamina propria; around nerves and blood vessels
    • *Well vascularized
  357. Adipose tissue
    • *Specialized form of loost CT
    • *Primarily adipocytes; stores lipid/fat droplets
    • *White adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue
    • *Energy reserve, support, protection and thermoregulation
    • *WAT � hypodermis, joints, heart surface
    • *BAT � limited
  358. Dense connective tissue
    • *Densly packed fibers with less ground substance than in loose CT
    • *Collagenious fiber
  359. Dense regular connective tissue
    • *Collagen fibers in the same direction; fibroblasts in rows between fibers; ground substance present
    • In areas of unidirectional tensions
  360. Tendon
    � mucle to bone
  361. Ligament
    - bone to bone
  362. Aponeurosis
    � flat band of CT, connects either - muscle to muscle or muccle to bone
  363. Dense irregular connective tissue
    • *Collagen fibers in many directions; scattered cells; ground substance present
    • *In areas of multidimensional tensions
    • *Fascia, capsules of organs; reticular layer of dermis; pericardium � cartilage, periosteum - bone
  364. Elastic connective tissue
    • *Predominately elastic fibers; fibroblasts & Ground substance
    • *In areas requiring some degree of stretching
    • *Walls of large arteries, larynx, trachea. Some broncihial tubes
  365. Reticular connective tissue
    • *Predominately reticular fibers; reticular cells, fibroblasts, and ground substance
    • Forms the stroma in some organs
    • Spleen, liver, lymphnodes
    • Provides strength and support
  366. Stroma
    � supporting component of an organ (CT)
  367. Parenchyma
    � functional component of an organ (epithelium)
  368. Adult connective tissue
    • � cartilage
    • - Chondrocyte - mature cartliage cell
    • - Lacuna
    • - matrix of ground substance with a dense network of fibers
    • - Perichondrium
    • - avascualr tissue
  369. General structure of Adult CT?
    • Chondrocyte � mature cartilage cell
    • Isogenous group or cell nest
    • 2 or more chondrocytes in same lacuna
  370. Lacuna
    � space in matrix that houses the cell
  371. Hyaline cartilage
    • *Primarily collagen fibers; scattered chondrocytes
    • *Most abundant form of cartilage
    • Articular cartilage, costal cartilage, wa in upper respiratory tract organs, embryo skin
    • *Flexible but provides support
  372. Fibrocarrtliage
    • *Has ability to withstand greater stress and compression that hyaline cartilage
    • *Primarily collagenous fivers in bundles or rows (herring bone pattern);chondrocytes in rows
    • *No true perichondrium
    • *Support and fusion
    • e.g. Intebral disc, menisci of knee, pubic symphesis
  373. Elastic cartilage
    • *Primarily elastic fibers
    • *Increased flexibility while maintaining strength
    • e.g.External ear, eustachian tube
  374. Major types of Membranes
    � epithelial and synovial
  375. Epithelial membranes
    • Epithelium + CT layer � 3 specific types
    • Mucus membrane = mucosa
  376. epithelium of membrane
    • *type of epithelium varies (nonketirinized stratified squamous to simple cuboidal)
    • *protects organs
  377. Connective tissue layer of membrane
    • *Loose CT
    • *Lamina propria
    • Locations:
    • *Lines cavities thast open to the outside Organs in the digestive trace, respiratory tract, urinary tract and repooductive tract.
  378. Serous Membrane
    • = serosa
    • Invaginated double-walled sac
  379. Epithelium of serous
    • *Simple squamous epithelium; �mesothelium�
    • Secretes a lubricating fluid
  380. Connective tissue layer of serous membrane
    • Loose CT
    • Not called lamina propria
    • Locations:
    • Lines cavities that o not open directly to the outside and also covers organs or structures with in that cavity
    • Has parietal and visceral layer
    • Pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
  381. Cutaneous membrane Epithelium
    • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    • Epidermis of skin
  382. Connective tissue layer of cutaneous membrane
    • = dermis; has 2 parts
    • *Loose CT = papillary
    • *Dense irregular CT = Reticular layer
    • Locations:
    • Skin
  383. Synovial Membrane
    • No epithelium
    • CT layer
    • Loose CT + elastic fiber + specialized adipocytes
    • Locations:
    • Joint cavities
    • Bursa
    • Tendon sheaths
    • Secrete synovial fluid
    • Lubricates: Permits easier movement
  384. Tissue Physiology
    Changes in a tissue do to disease
  385. �local�
    � at the site of the disease
  386. �general condition�
    � far away from the site of the disease
  387. Ways of change in tissue pathology; Atrophy
    • Wasting away of a tissue Result of:Change in metabolism
    • Decrease of nerce impulses or blood supply
    • Aging --> �Senil activity�
    • Local inactivity -->�Diverse atrophy�
  388. Ways of change in tissue pathology; Necrosis
    • Tissue death with in a living body
    • Result of trauma, heat or poison
    • Decreased blood supply
  389. Ways of change in tissue pathology; Somatic Death
    - death
  390. Methods to restore homeostasis
    • *Inflammation response
    • *Repair response
  391. Tissue repair:
    process of replacing dead or damaged cells
  392. Sources of new cells:
    • Stroma --> supporing part of an organ (CT)
    • Parenchyma --> functional part of an organ - epithelium
  393. Quality of repair
    • Parenchyma � near perfect
    • Stroma � scar - fibrosis

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lecture exam 1.txt
2011-02-08 03:53:38
BIO Anatomy Physiology Exam cards

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