Top 200: Antihistamines & Cough

Card Set Information

Author:
re.pitt
ID:
64906
Filename:
Top 200: Antihistamines & Cough
Updated:
2011-03-05 20:54:15
Tags:
Drug Cards Antihistamines Cough
Folders:

Description:
2/1/2011: Antihistamines & Cough
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user re.pitt on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is Allergic Rhinitis?
    Highly prevalent allergen-induced upper airway inflammatory disease

    Seasonal

    Perennial (year-round)

    Most common atopic (susceptible to developing allergies) disease in the US
  2. What are the Risk Factors of Allergic Rhinitis?
    • Increased age
    • Early food exposure
    • Heavy maternal smoking
    • Indoor allergen exposure
    • Parental Allergic Disorder
  3. What is the Treatment for Allergic Rhinitis?
    • A cure does not exist
    • The goal is to lessen symptoms & increase the patient's quality of life
    • Implement lifestyle changes
    • Pharmacologic Therapy
  4. What are H-1 Antihistamines?
    • H-1 antagonists, also called inverse agonists:
    • -bind to and stabilize the H-1 receptor
    • -Inhibit mast cell and basophil mediator release
    • -Reduces sneezing, itching, ocular irritation

    Reduces or eliminates the effects of Histamine (recall Histamine released during an allergic reaction)

    Anti-cholinergic effects

    First generation drugs (more adverse effects)

    • Second-generation drugs (less adverse effects)
  5. What are some examples of First-generation Anti-histamines?
    • Diphenhydramine
    • Meclizine
    • Hydroxyzine
    • Promethazine
    • Brompheniramine
    • Chlorpheniramine
  6. What are characteristics of First-generation Anti-histamines?
    • short half-life (dosed q 4-6 hours)
    • Crosses the blood brain barrier
    • CNS adverse effects:
    • dry mouth
    • dry eyes
    • constipation
    • urinary retention
  7. What are some examples of Second-generation Anti-histamines?
    • Fexofenadine
    • Loratadine
    • Desloratadine
  8. What are characteristics of Second-generation Anti-histamines?
    • Non-sedating
    • Poor penetration of blood brain barrier
    • Decreased CNS effects
    • Some OTC products
  9. What are the indications of Anti-histamines?
    allergic rhinitis

    allergic conjunctivitis

    allergic dermatological conditions (contact dermatitis)

    urticaria (hives)

    angioedema

    pruritus (atopic dermatitis, insect bites)

    anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions

    nausea and vomiting

    sedation (first-generation H1-antihistamines)
  10. Savannah is a 5 year old child who suffers from allergic rhinitis. Her Dad comes to your pharmacy asking how much Benadryl Savannah can take. She weighs 43 pounds and has no fever. You have Benadryl liquid on the shelf dosed as 6.25 mg/teaspoonful.
    Recall the dose is 5 mg/kg/DAY for Benadryl, and it is dosed every 4 to 6 hours.
  11. What is the point of coughing?
    • Keeps airways clear
    • Dry vs. productive cough
    • Acute
    • Chronic
    • Only a symptom...NOT a disease
  12. What may cause a cough?
    Allergies and asthma

    Lung infections (pneumonia or acute bronchitis)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Sinusitis leading to post-nasal drip

    Lung disease

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

    Cigarette smoking

    Exposure to secondhand smoke

    Exposure to air pollutants

    ACE inhibitors

    Croup
  13. What agents are used to treat cough?
    Mucolytics (breaks down mucus)

    • Expectorants (helps bring up mucus and other
    • material from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea)

    Suppressants

    Decongestants

    Antihistamines

    Pain relievers

    Others
  14. Warning! Cough Medicines are dangerous to children!
    FDA Recommendation: OTC Cough and Cold Medications Should Not Be Used in Infants and Children < 2 Years of Age -January, 2008

    FDA Recommendation: do not use in children <4 years of age UNLESS under guidance of health care professional -October 2008

    CDC: ~ 7,000 children under age 11 go to the ER each year after taking cough and cold medicines
  15. What other drug is found in many cough products?
    Codeine (and derivatives)

    Narcotic, Opioid

    • Affects of Codeine:
    • binds to opiate receptors in the CNS
    • causes cough suppression by direct central action in the medulla
    • produces generalized CNS depression
  16. diphenhydramine
    Brand name(s): Benadryl

    Drug Class: Antihistamine (first generation)

    Indications for use: relief of allergic symptoms; for moderate or severe allergic reaction

    Adverse Effects: drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth

    • Patient Education:
    • -Enters breast milk
    • -May cause drowsiness, fatigue, diarrhea

    Children's Dosing: 5 mg/kg/day (divided doses q 6-8 hrs
  17. meclizine
    Brand name(s):

    Drug Class: Antihistmaine (first generation)

    Indications for use:

    Adverse Effects:

    Patient Education:
  18. hydroxyzine
    Brand name(s):

    Drug Class: Antihistamine (first generation)

    Indications for use:

    Adverse Effects:

    Patient Education:
  19. promethazine
    Brand name(s): Phenergan (also available with Codeine)

    Drug Class: Antihistamine (first generation), Antiemetic, Sedative

    Available Formulations: Table, syrup, suppository, injection

    Indications for use: allergic reactions, sedative, motion sickness, post-operative pain

    Adverse Effects: drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth

    • Patient Education:
    • -Enters breast milk
    • -May cause drowsiness, fatigue, diarrhea

    • Other information:
    • -Refrigerate suppositories
    • -onset of action for suppositories: 15-30 mins
    • -not for children < 2 years
  20. fexofenadine
    Brand name(s):

    Drug Class: Antihistamine (second generation)

    Available formulations:

    Indications for use:

    Adverse Effects:

    Patient Education:
  21. desloratadine
    Brand name(s):

    Drug Class: Antihistamine (second generation)

    Available formulations:

    Indications for use:

    Adverse Effects:

    Patient Education:
  22. guaifenesin
    Brand name(s):

    Drug Class:
    Expectorant

    Indications for use:
    loosens phlegm, increases lubrication of lungs, allow for a productive cough and decreased chest congestion

    Adverse Effects:

    • Patient Education:
    • -Drink water!
    • Other Information:
    • -comes in many dosage forms
  23. Chlorpheniramine & Hydrocodone

    Brand name(s): Tussionex

    Drug Class: Antitussive

    Indications for use: relief of cough

    Adverse Effects: drowsiness, constipation

    • Patient Education:
    • -SHAKE WELL!
    • -Avoid alcohol
    • -could be habit forming
    • -not for children < 6 years old
    • -not for asthmatics
  24. benzonotate

    Brand name(s): Tessalon or Tessalon Perles

    Drug Class: Antitussive

    Indications for use: relief of cough

    Adverse Effects: headache, constipation, nausea

    • Patient Education:
    • -*LIFE THREATENING RXN with patients allergic to tetracaine or procaine
    • -Do not crush, chew or dissolve
    • -not for children < 10 years old
  25. codeine (and derivatives)
    Brand name(s):

    Drug Class: Narcotic; Opiod

    Indications for use: found in many cough products

    Adverse Effects:

    Patient Education:

    • Other Information:
    • -Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS
    • -causes cough suppression by direct central action in the medulla
    • -produces generalized CNS depression

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview