nutritionFlash1.txt

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taliajoysmith
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650
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nutritionFlash1.txt
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2009-10-31 09:53:50
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Nutrition Midterm Review (1)
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Chapters 1, 2, & 3
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  1. 1. 6 classes of nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Protein
    • Water
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
  2. 2. Calorie
    Units of energy; unit used to measure the energy in foods. The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram (a liter) of water 1 degree Celsius.
  3. 3. Calories in nutrients
    Measure of food energy; food and nutrient quantities often measured in grams.
  4. 4. Nutrients
    Components of food that ar indispensible to the body's functioning.
  5. 5. Essential Nutrients
    The nutrients the body cannot make for itself (or cannot make fast enough) from other raw materials; nutrients that must be obtained from food to prevent deficiencies
  6. 6. Energy yielding nutrients
    • Nutrients the body can use for energy
    • Fat=9 cal/gram
    • Carbohydrates=4 cal/gram
    • Protein=4 cal/gram
  7. 7. Nutrient density
    relatively rich in nutrients for the number of calories contained
  8. 8. Required nutrients
    • Water
    • A form of carbohydrate
    • Some lipids
    • Some parts of protein
    • All vitamins
    • All minerals
  9. 9. Enriched/fortified foods
    Foods to which nutrients have been added
  10. 10. Dietary guidelines
    • Science-based advice to promote health and to reduce the risk for major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity.
    • 1. Adequate nutrients within energy needs
    • 2. Weight management
    • 3. Physical activity
    • 4. Food groups to encourage: varied fruits, vegetables, milk, grains
    • 5. Fats: keep saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol low
    • 6. Less sodium, more potassium
    • 7. Drink in moderation
    • 8. Food safety
  11. 11. Malnutrition
    Any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients. (undernutrition/overnutrition)
  12. 12. Chronic diseases
    Long-duration degenerative diseases characterized by deterioration of the body organs. (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, etc.)
  13. 13. Dietary reference intakes (DRI)
    A set of 4 lists--RDA, AI, UL, EAR, and also AMDR--of values for measuring the nutrient intakes of healthy people in the US and canada. These values are used for planning and assessing diets.
  14. 14. Recommended dietary allowances (RDA)
    Nutrient intake goals for individuals; the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group. Derived from the estimated average requirements (EAR)
  15. 15. Adequate intakes (AI)
    Nutrient intake goals for individuals; the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people (observed or experimentally derived) in a particular stage and gender group and assumed to be adequate. Set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of an RDA value.
  16. 16. Tolerable upper intake levels (UL)
    The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of a particular life stage and gender group. Usual intake above this level may place an individual at risk of illness from nutrient toxicity.
  17. 17. Estimated average requirements (EAR)
    The average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group; used in nutrition research and policymaking and is the basis upon which RDA values are set.
  18. 18. Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR)
    Values for carbohydrate, fat, and protein expressed as percentages of total daily caloric intake; ranges of intakes set for the energy-yeilding nutrients that are sufficient to provide adequate total energy and nutrients while reducing the risk of chronic diseases.
  19. 19. Daily values (DV)
    Nutrient standards that are printed on food labels. Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2000-calorie diet, they allow consumers to compare the nutrient and energy contents of packaged foods.
  20. 20. Interpreting food labels
    • Look for:
    • 1. Calories per serving
    • 2. Number of servings per container
    • 3. Grams of carbohydrates per serving
    • 4. Grams of protein per serving
    • 5. Grams of fat per serving
  21. 21. Food label calculations
    • 1. Grams of carbohydrates per serving X 4 cal per gram
    • 2. Grams of protein per serving X 4 cal per gram
    • 3. Grams of fat per serving X 9 cal per gram
    • 4. Add all together = total calories per serving
  22. 22. Daily calorie intake percentages
    • 1. 45-65% from carbohydrates
    • 2. 20-35% from fat
    • 3. 10-35% from protein
  23. 23. Difference between DRIs and DVs
    DRIs are nutrient intake standards set for people living in the US and Canada. DVs are US standards used on food labels.
  24. 24. Food Groups
    • 1. Fruits
    • 2. Vegetables
    • 3. Grains
    • 4. Meat, poultry, fish, dried peas and beans, eggs, and nuts
    • 5. Milk, yogurt, and cheese
    • 6. Oils
    • 7. Solid fats and added sugars
  25. 25. Choose more:
    • 1. Vegetables
    • 2. Fruits
    • 3. Whole grains
    • 4. Skim milk
  26. 26. Choose less:
    • 1. Refined grains
    • 2. Total fats (sat, trans, chol)
    • 3. Added sugars
  27. 27. Fruit serving:
    1/2 c fruit is equivalent to 1/2 c fresh, frozen, or canned fruit; 1 meduim fruit; 1/4 c dried fruit; 1/2 c fruit juice
  28. 28. Vegetable serving:
    1/2 c vegetables is equivalent to 1/2 c cut-up raw or cooked vegetables; 1/2 c cooked legumes; 1/2 c vegetable juice; 1 c raw leafy greens
  29. 29. Grain serving:l
    1 oz grains is equivalent to 1 slice bread; 1/2 c cooked rice, pasta, or cereal; 1 oz dry pasta or rice; 1 c ready-to-eat cereal
  30. 30. Meat serving:
    1 oz meat is equivalent to 1 oz cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish; 1 egg; 1/4 c cooked legumes or tofu; 1 tbs peanut butter; 1/2 oz nuts or seeds
  31. 31. Milk serving:
    1 c milk is equivalent to 1 c fat-free milk or yogurt: 1 1/2 oz fat-free natural cheese; 2 oz fat-free processed cheese
  32. 32. Oil serving:
    1 tsp oil is equivalent to 1 tbs low-fat mayonnaise; 2 tbs light salad dressing; 1 tsp vegetable oil; 1 tsp soft margarine
  33. 33. 2000-calorie diet breakdown (food groups)
    • Servings:
    • 6 grains
    • 5 vegetables
    • 4 fruits
    • 3 dairy
    • 5 1/2 meat
    • 1733 calories=energy intake required to meet nutrient needs
    • 267 calories=discretionary calorie allowance
  34. 34. Fruit nutrients:
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    • Potassium
    • Fiber
  35. 35. Vegetable nutrients:
    • Folate
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    • Magnesium
    • Potassium
    • Fiber
  36. 36. Grains nutrients:
    • Folate
    • Niacin
    • Riboflavin
    • Thiamin
    • Iron
    • Magnesium
    • Fiber
  37. 37. Meat nutrients:
    • Protein
    • Niacin
    • Thiamin
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
    • Iron
    • Magnesium
    • Potassium
    • Zinc
  38. 38. Legumes/nuts nutrients:
    • Protein
    • Folate
    • Thiamin
    • Vitamin E
    • Iron
    • Magnesium
    • Potassium
    • Zinc
    • Fiber
  39. 39. Milk nutrients:
    • Protein
    • Riboflavin
    • Vitamin B12
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Potassium
    • Vitamin A (fortified)
    • Vitamin D (fortified)
  40. 40. Oil nutrients:
    • Vitamin E
    • Essential fatty acids
  41. 41. Dietary planning guide
    The USDA food guide pyramid can be used with flexibility by people with different eating styles because it includes so many different exchangeable options.
  42. 42. Enzyme
    Protein that speeds up a specific chemical reaction
  43. 43. Hormones
    Chemicals secreted by glands into blood in response to conditions in the body that require regulation
  44. 44. Insulin
    Hormone from the pancreas that helps glucose enter cells from the blood
  45. 45. Glucagon
    Hormone from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream
  46. 46. Epinephrine
    The major hormone that elicits the stress response
  47. 47. Norepinephrine
    Compound that helps elicit the stress response
  48. 48. Metabolism
    Sum of all physical and chemical changes taking place in living cells; includes all reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food
  49. 49. Organs that aid digestion:
    • Salivary glands
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Bile duct
    • Pancreatic duct
    • Pancreas
  50. 50. Organs that contain the food:
    • Mouth
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small intestine
    • Large intestine
    • Rectum
    • Anus
  51. 51. Digest
    To break molecules into smaller molecules
  52. 52. Absorb
    To take in nutrients

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