Units of energy; unit used to measure the energy in foods. The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram (a liter) of water 1 degree Celsius.
3. Calories in nutrients
Measure of food energy; food and nutrient quantities often measured in grams.
Components of food that ar indispensible to the body's functioning.
5. Essential Nutrients
The nutrients the body cannot make for itself (or cannot make fast enough) from other raw materials; nutrients that must be obtained from food to prevent deficiencies
6. Energy yielding nutrients
Nutrients the body can use for energy
7. Nutrient density
relatively rich in nutrients for the number of calories contained
8. Required nutrients
A form of carbohydrate
Some parts of protein
9. Enriched/fortified foods
Foods to which nutrients have been added
10. Dietary guidelines
Science-based advice to promote health and to reduce the risk for major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity.
1. Adequate nutrients within energy needs
2. Weight management
3. Physical activity
4. Food groups to encourage: varied fruits, vegetables, milk, grains
5. Fats: keep saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol low
6. Less sodium, more potassium
7. Drink in moderation
8. Food safety
Any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients. (undernutrition/overnutrition)
12. Chronic diseases
Long-duration degenerative diseases characterized by deterioration of the body organs. (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, etc.)
13. Dietary reference intakes (DRI)
A set of 4 lists--RDA, AI, UL, EAR, and also AMDR--of values for measuring the nutrient intakes of healthy people in the US and canada. These values are used for planning and assessing diets.
14. Recommended dietary allowances (RDA)
Nutrient intake goals for individuals; the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group. Derived from the estimated average requirements (EAR)
15. Adequate intakes (AI)
Nutrient intake goals for individuals; the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people (observed or experimentally derived) in a particular stage and gender group and assumed to be adequate. Set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of an RDA value.
16. Tolerable upper intake levels (UL)
The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of a particular life stage and gender group. Usual intake above this level may place an individual at risk of illness from nutrient toxicity.
17. Estimated average requirements (EAR)
The average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group; used in nutrition research and policymaking and is the basis upon which RDA values are set.
18. Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR)
Values for carbohydrate, fat, and protein expressed as percentages of total daily caloric intake; ranges of intakes set for the energy-yeilding nutrients that are sufficient to provide adequate total energy and nutrients while reducing the risk of chronic diseases.
19. Daily values (DV)
Nutrient standards that are printed on food labels. Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2000-calorie diet, they allow consumers to compare the nutrient and energy contents of packaged foods.
20. Interpreting food labels
1. Calories per serving
2. Number of servings per container
3. Grams of carbohydrates per serving
4. Grams of protein per serving
5. Grams of fat per serving
21. Food label calculations
1. Grams of carbohydrates per serving X 4 cal per gram
2. Grams of protein per serving X 4 cal per gram
3. Grams of fat per serving X 9 cal per gram
4. Add all together = total calories per serving
22. Daily calorie intake percentages
1. 45-65% from carbohydrates
2. 20-35% from fat
3. 10-35% from protein
23. Difference between DRIs and DVs
DRIs are nutrient intake standards set for people living in the US and Canada. DVs are US standards used on food labels.
24. Food Groups
4. Meat, poultry, fish, dried peas and beans, eggs, and nuts
5. Milk, yogurt, and cheese
7. Solid fats and added sugars
25. Choose more:
3. Whole grains
4. Skim milk
26. Choose less:
1. Refined grains
2. Total fats (sat, trans, chol)
3. Added sugars
27. Fruit serving:
1/2 c fruit is equivalent to 1/2 c fresh, frozen, or canned fruit; 1 meduim fruit; 1/4 c dried fruit; 1/2 c fruit juice
28. Vegetable serving:
1/2 c vegetables is equivalent to 1/2 c cut-up raw or cooked vegetables; 1/2 c cooked legumes; 1/2 c vegetable juice; 1 c raw leafy greens
29. Grain serving:l
1 oz grains is equivalent to 1 slice bread; 1/2 c cooked rice, pasta, or cereal; 1 oz dry pasta or rice; 1 c ready-to-eat cereal
30. Meat serving:
1 oz meat is equivalent to 1 oz cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish; 1 egg; 1/4 c cooked legumes or tofu; 1 tbs peanut butter; 1/2 oz nuts or seeds
31. Milk serving:
1 c milk is equivalent to 1 c fat-free milk or yogurt: 1 1/2 oz fat-free natural cheese; 2 oz fat-free processed cheese