altered thought/neuro disorders

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sararaz
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65001
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altered thought/neuro disorders
Updated:
2011-02-10 16:09:51
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neuro altered thought neurological disorders
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altered thought process/neurological disorders for lpn, ls2
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  1. function of the cerebrum
    • sensory and motor activity and thought and learning.
  2. function of brainstem
    Breathing, hr, bp
  3. function of the cerebellum
    voluntary mvt, balance, muscle tone
  4. Spinal cord function
    nerve function between body and brain
  5. Perepheral nerves function
    sensory and motor
  6. I olfactory
    sense of smell
  7. II optic
    vision
  8. IIIoculomotor
    eye mvt, papillary control
  9. IV trochlear
    turning eyes outward
  10. V trigeminal
    sensations of face, scalp and teeth, chewing movement
  11. VI abducens
    eye mvt
  12. VII facial
    sense of taste, contraction of muscles of facial expresion
  13. VIII acoustic
    hearing , sense of balance
  14. IX glossopharyngeal
    sensations of throat, taste, swallowing mvt
  15. X vagus
    sensation of throat, larynx, and thoracic and abd organs, swallowing, voice production, slowing of heartbeat, acceleration of peristalsis
  16. XI spinal accessory
    shoulder mvt and turning mvt of head
  17. XII hypoglossal
    tongue mvt
  18. MRI
    utilizes magnetic forces to image body structures
  19. LP
    done to obtain a specimen of cerebrospinal fluid
  20. EEG
    measures electrical activity of the brain
  21. PET
  22. MRA
  23. echoencephalogram
  24. carotid duplex
  25. List 5 s&s of ICP and nursing INTV for each
  26. Epilepsy
    disorder of the CNS characterized by LossOC and convulsions
  27. 3 primary goals of the nursing care for a client having a seizure
    • 1. move to flat surface
    • 2. pillow under head
    • 3. suction ready
  28. 3 NGS INVT used to care for pt having seizure and rationale for each
  29. The period of flaccid paralysis and complete loss of reflexes durring the initial period following injury to the spine is known
  30. why does autonomic dysreflexia occur
  31. difference btwn trigeminal neuralgia and Bell's palsy
    • Bells=loss of movement and feeling of face
    • Trig= pain of nerves in face
  32. 3 changes considered late s/s of ICP
  33. List 3 INTV for pt c ICP ans rationale for each
    • 1. elevate head of bed= to promote venous return
    • 2. restrict fluid intake= if fluid is causing ICP dont want to add to it
    • 3. no valsalva maneuver= causes pressure changes in body
  34. PERRLA
    • Pupils
    • Equal
    • Round
    • React
    • Light
    • Accomadation
  35. the hypothalamus controls
    temp
  36. a positive____ sign is a reliable indicator of___ and a sign of____
    • Kernigs
    • meningeal damage
    • meningitis
  37. when doing a neuro assessment what is contraindicated in an alert or awake pt? (hint: nothing to do with food)
    the cold caloric response
  38. Glascow Coma Scale 3 parts/responses
    Motor,verbal and eye opening
  39. decerebrate
    head arched back, arms extended by side fists out
  40. decorticate
    head arched back. arms on chest with fists out
  41. singulitis
    hiccups and are a sign of ICP
  42. 3 classic sighn of meningitis
    headache, positive kernig and broadzinski
  43. hemianopia
    defective vision or blindness in half of the visual field
  44. INTV of hemianopia
    turn head the other way
  45. clonus
    when checking muscles a rhythmic contraction happens
  46. neuro risk factors
    trauma, hemmorhage, hypoxic conditions, hypertension, alcohol, insulin/glucose levels, urea
  47. LOC: person is A&Ox4=____
    person, place, time, situation/purpose.
  48. resp. cheyne-stokes
    rhythmic c periods of apnea
  49. resp. neurogenic
    regular rhythm, fast and deep
  50. resp. apneustic
    irregular
  51. resp. ataxic
    irregular rhythm rate and depth
  52. paralysis=
    what to assess
    • loss of function.
    • gait, stance, muscle tone, invol mvt,
  53. paresis
    lesser degree, partial/incomplete paralysis
  54. parasthesia
    numbness and tingling
  55. proprioception
    know where all body parts are in relation to the body
  56. unilateral neglect
    unaware/inattentive to one side of the body
  57. etology of epilepsy or seizures
    genetics, trauma to brain, tumor in brain, metabolic disorders, toxicity, infection
  58. craniocerebral trauma is 2nd most cause of
    neuro injury and death btwn age 1-35
  59. direct trauma
    head is injured
  60. indirect trauma
    brain is injured from inside
  61. acceleration
    most common is mva(motor vehicle accident)
  62. major s/s of craniocerebral trauma
    bleeding, swelling, ICP, infection, seizures
  63. Open fx=
    Risks=
    • cracked in skull
    • bleeding out, infection
  64. closed fx
    cracked but not all the way thru
  65. concussion=
    s/s=
    • jarring of brain within skull
    • temp. loss of consciousness, change in personality, n/v
  66. contusion
    bruise
  67. depression fx
    pushed in part of skull but still attached
  68. compound fx
    punched thru skull to inside of skull
  69. most common hematoma is
    epidural hematoma
  70. epidural hematoma
    btwn bone and first layer of meminges, forms rapidly
  71. subdural hamatoma
    under dura, venous blood, and develops slower
  72. subarachnoid hemorrhage
    bleeding under arachnoid
  73. intracerebral hemorrhage
    in brain tissue
  74. data collection for craniocerebral trauma
    baseline neuro asmt. have to protect spine, airway open, watch for bleeding
  75. craniocerebral trauma watch for
    developing ICP, widening pulse pressure, low pulse, low resp, increased temp
  76. if s/s incerase(craniocerebral trauma) watch for
    headache, n/v, visual disturbances, pupil changes, blood from ears and nose, seizure activity, glucose in clear fluids from body
  77. Battles sign is=
    indicator of=
    • small red bruise behind ear
    • lower skull injury
  78. halo sign
    csf and blood dont mix well
  79. tx of craniocerebral trauma
    monitor resp status and maintain airway, neuro check and vital signs, neck in neutral position, hob 30-45 deg, keep cool if have temp, seizure precautions, monitor for pain
  80. spinal shock a.k.a. Areflexia=
    have to watch for=
    • first hour of injury can last days-months
    • hypotension and bradycardia
  81. INTV for areflexia
    tilt table, vasopressor, ted hose or scd's

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