Management 341

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bmercil
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65003
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Management 341
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2011-02-23 11:53:56
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Exam One
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Ch 1-6
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  1. Human Behavior in Organizations
    • Clockworks- human behavior is logical and ratonal- orderly, idealized view devoid of conflict or dilemma, meshes smoothly
    • Or
    • Snake pits- daily conflict, and stuggle in organizations
  2. Organizational behavior
    The study of individuals behavior and groupdynamics in organizations
  3. Four steps for responding positively in times of change
    • 1. Have a positive attitude
    • 2. Ask questions
    • 3. Listen to the answers
    • 4. Be committed to success

    Be open and responsive not rigid nor reactive
  4. Organizational Variables that Affect Human Behavior
    • Jobs
    • Work design
    • Communication
    • Performance appraisals
    • Organizational design
    • Organizational structure
  5. What is the study of organizational behavior primarily concerned with?
    Psychological, interpersonal, and behavioral dynamics in organizations
  6. What are the 2 categories of human behavior theories?
    • Internal
    • External
  7. Internal perspective
    • Examining individuals history and personal values
    • Feelings, thoughts, needs, experiences
  8. External perspective
    Examining external events and environmental forces
  9. Indisciplinary Influences on Org Behavior
    • Anthropology- human learned behaviir
    • Engineering- applied science of energy and matter
    • Medicine- applied science of health
    • Management- overeseeing activities in orgs
    • Sociology- science of society
    • Psychology- science of human behavior
  10. Components of an organization
    • Tasks- mission, purpose, or goal for existing
    • People- human resource of org
    • Technology- toolsand knowledge used to transform inputs to outputs
    • Structure- system of communication, workflow
  11. Formal vs. Informal organizations
    • Formal- offical, legitimate, and most visible part of organization
    • Informal- unoffical, less visible, "insiders"
  12. Formal Elements
    • Goals & objectives
    • Policies and procedures
    • Job descriptions
    • Financial resources
    • Authority structure
    • Communication channels
    • Products and services
  13. Informal Elements
    • Beliefs and assumptions
    • Perceptions and attitudes
    • Values
    • Feelings such as fear, joy, anger
    • Group norms
    • Informal leaders
  14. Challenges related to change
    • 1. Globalization leads to intense rivalry
    • 2. Workforce diversity
    • 3. Ethics
  15. Customer focused quality
    • A potential means for giving orgs in viable industries a competitive edge in international competition
    • A rubric for products and services that are of high status
    • Customer-oriented philosophy of management with implications for all aspects of org behavior
    • A cultural value embeded in successcul orgs
  16. Six sigma
    A high-perfermance system to execute business strategy that is customer-driven, emphaizes quantitative decision making, and place priority on saving money
  17. Six Sigma vs. TQM
    • SS- executive ownership, business strategy execution system, truely cross-functional, focused training with verifiable, return on investment, business results oriented
    • TQM- self-directed work teams, quality initiative, largely within a single function, no mass training instatistics and quality, return on investment, quality oriented
  18. How do managers advance total quality?
    • Engaging participative management
    • Being willing to change everything
    • Focus quality efforts on customer service
    • Including quality as a criterion in reward systems, improving the flow of info regarding quality improvement successes or failures, and being actively and personally involved in quality efforts
  19. What are three reasons why managing org behavior during change is challenging?
    • 1. Inc globalization of orgs operating territory
    • 2. Increasing diversity of org workforces
    • 3. The continuing demand for higher levels of moral and ethical behavior at work
  20. What are 3 questions for evaluating quality-improvement ideas?
    • Does the idea improve customer response?
    • Does the idea accelerate results?
    • Does the idea raise the effectiveness of resources
  21. What are the three activities needed when learning about org behavior?
    • 1. Objective knowledge- results from research and scientific activities
    • 2. Skill development- mastery of abilities essential to successful functioning in orgs
    • 3. Both need to be applied to real-world settings
  22. What are the essential skills identified by the Dept. Of Labor?
    • 1. Resource management skills such as time management
    • 2. Info management skills such as data interpretation
    • 3. Personal interacton skills sucha s teamwork
    • 4. Systems behavior and performance skills such as cause-effect relationships
    • 5. Technology utilization skills such as troubleshooting
  23. Three Assumptions Required for Learning from Structured Activity
    • Each student must accept responsibility for his/her own behavior, actions, and learning
    • Each student must actively participate in the individual/group structured learning activity
    • Each student must be open to new information, new skills, new ideas, and experimentation
  24. Trends Affecting Managers
    • Industrial restructuring
    • Increased amount and availability of information
    • Need to attract and retain the best employees
    • Need to understand human and cultural differences
    • Rapid shortening of response times in all aspects of business
  25. International vs. Globalization
    • Int.- implies that an individual's or org's natonality is held strongly in conciousness
    • Glob- implies the world is free from national boundries and that its really borderless
  26. Multinational vs. Transnational
    • Mult- recognized as doing business in many countries
    • Trans- global viewpoint supersedes national issues
  27. Changes in global marketplace
    • Collapse of Eastern Europe
    • Union of East and West Berlin
    • Perestroika
    • Creation of the European Union
    • Establishment of the North American Free Trade Agreement
    • Expansion of business with China
  28. Factors in cultural differences
    • Individualism – a cultural orientation in which people belong to loose social frameworks; primary concern for self and family
    • Collectivism – a cultural orientation in which individuals belong to tightly knit social frameworks; depend on large extended families or clans
    • Power distance (high or low)– the degree to which a culture accepts unequal distribution of power
    • Uncertainty avoidance (high or low) – the degree to which a culture tolerates ambiguity and uncertainty
    • Masculinity – the cultural orientation in which assertiveness and materialism are valued
    • Femininity – the cultural orientation in which relationships and concern for others are valued
    • Time orientation (long or short- term) – whether a culture’s values are oriented toward the future (long-term orientation) or toward the past and present (short-term orientation)
  29. Management careers With a global dimension
    • Expatriate manager – a manager who works in a country other than his or her home country
    • International executive – an executive whose job has international scope
    • Key competencies needed include integrety, insigtfulness, risk-taking, courage to take a stand, and the ability to bring out the best in people
  30. Developing cross-cultural sensitivity
    • Use of mentor/protégé relationships
    • Cultural sensitivity training
    • Cross-cultural task forces/teams
    • Global view of human resource management
    • -Planning
    • -Recruitment and selection
    • -Compensation
    • -Training and development
    • -Multinational legal system knowledge
    • -Knowledge of global economics, culture, and customs
  31. Diversity
    • All forms of individual differences
    • Culture, age, gender, sexual orientation, etc.
  32. Women at work
    • Pros
    • 60% of labir force
    • 50% undergrad degrees
    • 52% masters
    • 32% doctorates
    • Inc # women as political and corporate leaders
    • Inc women as business owners and entrepreneurs
    • Cons
    • Pay inequities
    • Lower benefit levels
    • Hit hardest when companies restructure or downsize
    • Glass ceiling- intangible barrier that keeps women and miniorities from rising above a certain org level
  33. Age diversity
    • Differences in atttitudes and values
    • Carry false impressions of each other
    • Direct experience with each other reduces negative beliefs
  34. Ability diversity in the workplace
    • Person with a disability- anyone possessing physical or mental impairment that limits one or more major life activities
    • Underutilized; high unemployment
    • Covers temporary and permanent disabilities, has inc employment for people w/ disabilities
  35. Diversity benefits
    • Attracts and retains besg talent
    • Improves mktg efforts
    • Promotes creativity and innovation
    • Better problem solving
    • Enhances org flexibility
  36. Diversity problems
    • Rssistance to change
    • Lack of cohesiveness
    • Communication problems
    • Interpersonal conflicts
    • Slowed decisiion making
  37. What are the 3 ethical theories?
    • Consequntial- emphsizes the consequences or results of behavior
    • Rule-based- emphasizes the character of the act itself rather than its effects
    • Character- emphasizes the character, personal virtues, and the integrity of the individual
  38. Employee rights issues
    • Computerized monitoring
    • Drug testing
    • Free speech
    • Downsizing and layoffs
    • Due process
    • Confidentiality Ex. HIV infection
  39. What are the three types of sexual harassment?
    • Gender harassment- crude comments, jokes, behaviors that convey hostility toward a gender
    • Unwanted sexual attention- touching, pressure for dates
    • Sexual coercion- demands for sexual favors through job-related threats or promises
  40. Distributive vs. Procedural justice
    • D- fairness of the outcomes that individuals recive in an org
    • P- fairness of the process by which the outcomes are allocated in an org
  41. Whistle blower
    An employee who informs authorities of the wrongdoing of his or her company or coworkers
  42. Social responsibility
    Obligation of an org tk behave in ethical ways
  43. Four-way test
    • 1. Is it the truth?
    • 2. Is it fair to all concerned?
    • 3. Will it build goodwill and better friendships?
    • 4. Will it be benficial to all concerned?
  44. Individual differences
    Individual differences – the way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another
  45. What are variables influencing individual behavior
    • The person- skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, ethics
    • The environment- org, work group, job, personal life
  46. Interactional psychology
    Approach that says in order to understand human behavior, we must know something about the person and the situation
  47. Propositions of interactional psychology
    • Behavior is a function of a continuous, multi-directional interaction between the person and situation
    • Person is active in process
    • -Changed by situations
    • -Changes situations
    • People vary in many characteristics
    • Two situational interpretations
    • -The objective situation
    • -Person’s subjective view of the situation
  48. Personality
    Relatively stable set of charactoristics that influences an individual's behaviors
  49. Core self-evaluation (CSE)
    • General self-efficacy – individual’s general belief that he or she is capable of meeting job demands in a wide variety of situations
    • Task specific self-efficacy – person’s belief that he or she can perform a specific task
    • A broad set of traits describing one’s self concept, including
    • -Locus of control
    • -Self-esteem- general feeling of self worth
    • -Self-efficacy
    • -Self-monitoring
    • -Emotional stability
    • -Influences individual behavior in organizations
    • -Affects work performance
  50. Personality theories
    • Trait theory- undertsand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits
    • Integrative approach- describes personality as a composite of an individual's psychological processes
    • Dispositions- tendencies of individuals to respond to situations in consistent ways
    • Dispositions include: emotions, cognitions, attitudes, experiences, fantasies
  51. Locus of control
    • Generalized belief about self control
    • Internal- I control wjay happens to me
    • External- people and circumstances control my fate
  52. Self-monitoring
    • Extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations
    • High- flexible, unpredictable, inconsistant
    • Low- act on internal state, consistant, less likely to respond to group norms
  53. Personality characteristics
    • Positive Affect – an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
    • Negative Affect – an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
    • Strong situation- can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
    • Strong personalities will dominate in weak situations
  54. Four measures of personalities
    • Self-Report Questionnaire – assessment involving an individual’s responses to questions
    • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences
    • Projective Test – elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuli
    • Behavioral Measures – personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situation
  55. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    • Based on Carl Jung’s theories. . .
    • People are fundamentally different
    • People are fundamentally alike
    • People have preference combinations for
    • -Extraversion/introversion- how one re-energizes
    • -Sensing/intuition- how one gather info
    • -Thinking/feeling- how one makes decisions
    • -Perceiving/judging- howone orients to the outer world
    • Based on Carl Jung’s theories . . .
    • Human similarities/differences understood by combining preferences
    • Prefer or choose one way of doing things over another
    • No preferences better than others
    • Understand, celebrate, and appreciate differences
  56. What are the uses of MBTI
    • Identify learning and teaching styles
    • Decide on careers (Example: many managers are ESTJs)
    • Determine decision making style
    • Determine management style
    • Build teams
  57. What are the characteristics of the Social Perception Model
    • Perceiver- familiarity w/ target, attitudes, mood, self-concept, cognitive structure
    • Target- psychical appearance, verbal communication, nonverbal cues, intentions
    • Situational- interaction context, strength of situational cues

    Barriers between perceiver/target and situational
  58. Impression management
    • Impression Management – process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them
    • Name dropping
    • Appearance
    • Self-description
    • Other enhancing
    • Flattery
    • Favors
    • Agreement with opinion
    • Social Identity-basis
  59. Attribution theory
    • Attribution theory – explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of others
    • Internal attribution – attributing success to ability or effort
    • External attribution – attributing success to sources beyond your control
  60. Attribution biases
    • Fundamental Attribution Error – tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behavior
    • Self-serving Bias – tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes
  61. Attitude
    psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor
  62. ABC Model of Attitude
    • Affect- psychological indicators, verbal statements about feelings
    • Behavioral Intentions- observed behavior, verbal statements about intentions
    • Cognition- attitude scales, verbal statements about beliefs
  63. What are the 2 influences on attitude formation?
    • Direct experience- contact with person or object (readily availible; easily recalled)
    • Social learning- process of deriving attitude from family, peer, groups, religious orgs, and culture (not readily availible or easily recalled)
  64. Social learning through modeling
    • Modeling – individual’s acquire attitudes by observing others
    • Four step process:
    • 1. Learner focuses attention on model
    • 2. Learner retains what was observed
    • 3. Learner practices the behavior
    • 4. Learner is motivated to learn from model
  65. What are the links between attitude and behavior?
    • How is behavior affected by attitude?
    • Attitude specificity on issue
    • Relevance to the individual
    • Timing of the measurement
    • Personality factors, ex. self-monitoring
    • Social constraints
  66. Cognitive Dissonance
    A state of tensio thag is produced when an individual experiences conflicts between attitudes and behavior
  67. Work attitudes
    • Job satisfaction
    • Workplace devient behavior
    • Organizational commitment
    • - affective commitment- desire to remain
    • - continuence commitment- cannot afford to leave
    • - normative commitment- percieved obligation to remain
  68. Job satisfaction
    Pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience
  69. Organizational Citizenship Behavior
    • Behavior is anove and beyond duty
    • Related to job satifaction
  70. Deviant Behavior
    Any voluntary counterproductive behavior thag violates org norms and causes some degree of harm to org funtioning
  71. Persuasion
    • Source individual infliences target-> new attitude of target
    • Persuadable target- lower self-esteem, moderate attitudes, good mood
    • Influencial source- trustworthly, attractive, expert
  72. Emotions
    mental states that include feelings, physiological changes and the inclination to act
  73. Emotion Contagion
    A dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another either consciously or unconsciously through nonverbal channels
  74. Ethics
    • Study of moral values and behavior
    • Ethical behavior- acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society
  75. Individual/organizational Model of Ethical Behavior
    • Individual influences- values systems, locus of control, machiavellianism, cognitive moral
    • Org influences- codes of conduct, ethics committees or officers, training programs, ethics communication systems, norms, modeling
  76. Individual qualities required for ethical decision-making
    • The competence to identify ethical issues and evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action
    • The self-confidence to seek out different opinions about the issue and decide what is right in terms of a particular situation
    • Tough mindedness – the willingness to make decisions when all that needs to be known cannot be known and when the ethical issue has no established, unambiguous solution
  77. Values
    • Enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally preferanle to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence
    • Instrumental- represent acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state
    • Terminal- represent the goals tk be achieved, or end states of existence
  78. Individual work values
    • Achievement- career advancement
    • Concern for others- compassionate behavior
    • Honesty- providing accurate info
    • Fairness- impartiality
  79. Machiavellianism
    Personality charactoristic indicating one's willingness to do whatever it takes to get one's own way
  80. Cognitive Moral Development
    Process of moving through stages of maturity in terms of making ethical decisions
  81. Motivation
    the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior
  82. Early Philosophers Internal Motivational Theories
    • Max Weber
    • Work contributes to salvation
    • Protestant work ethic

    • Sigmund Freud - Psychoanalysis
    • Delve into the unconscious mind to better understand a person’s motives and needs

    • Adam Smith
    • “Enlightened” self-interest; that which is in the best interest and benefit to the individual and to other people
    • Technology is a force multiplier for labor productivity

    • Frederick Taylor
    • Founder of scientific management
    • Emphasized cooperation between management and labor to enlarge profits
  83. Employee Recognition and Ownership
    • Built on Smith and Taylor’s theories
    • Emphasize external incentives
    • Aimed at reducing turnover; building commitment
    • “Feelings of ownership” increases organizational citizenship behavior (includes both psychological needs and external incentives)
  84. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Need hierarchy –
    • theory that behavior is determined by a progression of physical, social, and psychological needs
  85. Motivational Theories X and Y
    • Theory X – a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower order needs
    • Theory Y – a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs
  86. McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory X
    • Naturally indolent; work as little as possible
    • Lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led
    • Inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs
    • Naturally resistant to change Gullible, not bright, ready dupes
  87. McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory Y
    • Passive and resistant behaviors not inherent: result of organizational experience
    • People possess
    • ◦Motivation
    • ◦Development potential
    • ◦Capacity for assuming responsibility
    • ◦Readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals

    Management’s task – arrange conditions and operational methods so people can achieve their own goals by directing efforts to organizational goals
  88. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
    ERG Theory added regression hypothesis; in frustration, people move to the next lowest level and intensify gratification there.
  89. McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Achievement
    Need for Achievement – a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals’ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties

    • Need for Power – a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make
    • a difference in life

    Need for Affiliation – a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people
  90. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
    • Motivation Factor – work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth
    • Job enrichment
    • Leads to superior performance and effort

    • Hygiene Factor – work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain
    • Maintenance factor
    • Contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied
    • Contributes to absence of complaints
  91. Eustress
    healthy, normal stress
  92. New Ideas in Human Motivation: Positive Energy & Full Engagement
    Build Positive Energy, Expend Energy, Renewel and Recovery
  93. Social Exchange and Equity Theory
    • Equity theory focuses on individual-environment interaction
    • Concerned with social processes that influence motivation and behavior Etzioni - exchange relationships
    • ◦Committed
    • ◦Calculated
    • ◦Alienated
  94. Adam’s Theory of Inequity
    Inequity – the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving
  95. Strategies for Resolution of Inequity
    • Alter the person’s outcomes
    • Alter the person’s inputs
    • Alter the comparison other’s outputs
    • Alter the comparison other’s inputs
    • Change who is used as a comparison other
    • Rationalize the inequity
    • Leave the organizational situation
  96. New Perspectives on Equity Theory
    Equity Sensitive, Benevolent, Entitled
  97. Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs
    • Valence – value or importance placed on a particular reward
    • Expectancy – belief that effort leads to performance
    • Instrumentality – belief that performance is related to rewards
  98. 3 Causes of Motivational Problems
    • Belief that effort will not result in performance
    • Belief that performance will not result in rewards
    • The value a person places on, or the preference a person has for, certain rewards
  99. Moral Maturity
    Moral Maturity – the measure of a person’s cognitive moral development

    Morally mature people behave and act based on universal ethical principles.

    Morally immature people behave and act based on egocentric motivations.
  100. Ways to Motivate People
    • —Training
    • —Coaching
    • —Task assignments
    • —Rewards contingent on good performance
    • —Valued rewards available
  101. Learning
    A change in behavior acquired through experience
  102. Conditioning
    • Classical Conditioning – modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response
    • Operant Conditioning – modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors
  103. Positive & Negative Consequences
    • Positive Consequences –
    • Results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable

    • Negative Consequences –
    • Results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive
  104. Reinforcement
    the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences
  105. Punishment
    the attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences
  106. Extinction
    the attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it
  107. Reinforcement Schedules
    • •Continuous
    • •Intermittent
    • •Fixed Ration
    • •Variable Ratio
    • •Fixed Interval
    • •Variable Interval
  108. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    Task Specific Self-Efficacy – an individual’s beliefs and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively

    • Sources of Task Specific
    • Self-Efficacy
    • •Prior Experiences
    • •Persuasion from Others
    • •Behavior Models
    • •Assessment of Current Physical and Emotional Capabilities
  109. Learning & Personality Differences
    Personality Preference

    • Information Gathering
    • Intuitors
    • Theoretical, look for meaning in material, holistic understanding, look for possibilities & interrelationships
    • Sensors
    • Prefer specific, empirical data, practical applications, master details, look for the realistic & doable

    • Decision Making
    • Thinkers
    • Prefer data & information analysis, fair minded, evenhanded, seek logical & just conclusions, objective
    • Feelers
    • Prefer interpersonal involvement, tenderhearted, harmonious, seek subjective, merciful results
  110. Goal Setting
    the process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior
  111. What are the characteristics effevtive goals
    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Attainable
    • Realistic
    • Time-Bound
  112. Goal Setting Functions
    Increase work motivation and task performance

    • •Employee participation
    • •Supervisory commitment
    • •Useful and timely performance feedback
  113. Goal Setting Functions
    Reduce role stress associated with conflicting or confusing situations

    • Clarify task-role expectations communicated to employees
    • Improve communication between managers and employees

    Improve accuracy and validity of performance evaluation

    • Management by Objectives (MBO) – a goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers
    • –Articulates what to do
    • –Determines how to do it
  114. Performance Management
    Performance Management – a process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance
  115. Performance Management Process
    • Define performance in behavioral terms
    • Measure and assessperformance
    • Feedback for goal setting and planning
  116. Performance Appraisal Purposes
    • Performance appraisal – the evaluation of a person’s performance
    • Provides feedback to employees
    • Identifies employees’ developmental needs
    • Decides promotions and rewards
    • Decides demotions and terminations
    • Develops information about the organization’s selection and placement decisions
  117. Communicating Performance Feedback
    • —Begin with something positive
    • —Refer to specific verbatim statements and observable behaviors
    • —Focus on changeable behaviors
    • —Both supervisor and employee should plan and organize before the session
  118. 3600 Feedback
    A process of self-evaluation and evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers
  119. What Should Managers do to Develop People & Enhance Careers
    • —Coach and develop employees
    • —Be vulnerable and open to challenge
    • —Maintain a position of responsibility
    • —Listen empathetically
    • —Encourage employee to talk about hope and aspirations
  120. What should employees do to Develop People & Enhance Careers
    • —Take responsibility for growth & development
    • —Challenge supervisor about future development
    • —Express individual preferences and goals
  121. Effective Appraisal Systems
    • Key Characteristics
    • Validity
    • Reliability
    • Responsiveness
    • Flexibility
    • Equitableness
  122. Individual rewards
    • •Foster independent behavior
    • •May lead to creative thinking and novel solutions
    • •Encourage competitive striving within a work team
  123. Team rewards
    • •Emphasizecooperation and joint efforts
    • •Emphasize sharing information, knowledge, and expertise
  124. Correcting Poor Performance
    • Identify primary cause or responsibility
    • Determine if personal or organizational
    • Determine problem’s source
    • Develop corrective plan of action
  125. Attribution Theory
    • Managers make inferences concerning employees’ behaviors and performance.
    • Use 3 informational cues
    • 1.Consensus – the extent to which peers in the same situation behave in a similar fashion
    • 2.Distinctiveness – degree to which an individual behaves the same way in other situations
    • 3.Consistency – the frequency of behavior over time
  126. Attribution Model
    • 1. Information cues
    • • Consensus
    • • Consistency
    • • Distinctiveness
    • 2. Observation
    • of poor
    • performance
    • 3. Attribution of poor performance
    • • Internal causes
    • • External causes
    • 4. Perceived source of responsibility
    • 5. Behavior in response to attribution
  127. Mentoring
    • A work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle
    • Four phases
    • 1.Initiation
    • 2.Cultivation
    • 3.SeparationRedefinition

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