Human Geography

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JerrahAnn
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Human Geography
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2011-02-09 15:12:47
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  1. Human Geography
    The study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people's relationships with their environments
  2. Globalization
    Increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change
  3. Geographical Imagination
    Capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places, and regions
  4. Geographical Path Dependency
    Historical relationship between the present activities associated with a place and the past experiences of that place
  5. Conceptual Vocabulary
    • Many things already noticed/familiar
    • Geographical path dependency
    • Ancillary linkages
    • Cultural landscapes
  6. Structural Factors
    • Shaping places and regions
    • Cumulative causation
    • Demographic transition
    • Globalization
  7. Utility
    Usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group
  8. Environmental Determinism
    Doctrine holding that human activities are controlled by the environment
  9. Landscape
    Focus of geographical study
  10. Regional Approach
    All aspects of a particular region or territory
  11. Places
    • Specific geographic setting with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes
    • Settings for daily lives, influencing values attitudes beliefs, physical well-being, and collective memory
  12. Migration
    • Move beyond the same political jurisdiction, involving a change of residence-- either as emigration or immigration
    • Geographical movement of population
    • Some degree of permanence
    • Crossing a political boundary
  13. Push Factors
    • Events and conditions that impel an individual to move from a location
    • War
    • Crime
    • Environmental degradation
    • Job loss
    • Political change
  14. Pull Factors
    • Forces of attraction that influence migrants to move to a particular location
    • Amenities/Aesthetics
    • Employment
    • Safety
    • Religious freedom
  15. Geographical Scale
    • International <--> Internal
    • Regional <--> Local
  16. Reason to Move
    Voluntary <--> Involuntary
  17. Length of Time
    Permanent <--> Temporary
  18. Migration Policies
    • Adopted at independence designed to sustain plantation economy
    • Maintain flow of migrants from poorer north with pull factors of higher incomes and better conditions
  19. Voluntary International
    book
  20. Voluntary Internal
    • Settlers
    • From frostbelt to sunbelt
  21. Voluntary Local
    book
  22. Involuntary International
    Refugees- over 10 million a year
  23. Involuntary Internal
    • Internally displaced persons
    • Native people
  24. Involuntary Local
    book
  25. Temporary International
    book
  26. Temporary Internal
    book
  27. Temporary Internal
    book
  28. Permanent International
    book
  29. Permanent Internal
    book
  30. Permanent Local
    book
  31. Guest Workers
    • Individuals who migrate temporarily to take up jobs in other countries
    • Important element of economic strategy for developing countries
    • Length of stay challenges host governments
    • - Schooling
    • - Taxes
    • - Citizenship
  32. Jus Solis
    • Law of the soil
    • If you were born in America, you're an American citizen
  33. Jus Sanguine
    • Law of the blood
    • No matter if you were born in Germany, if your parents aren't German, then you're not
  34. Population Density
    Crude density
  35. Population Distribution
    Physical and Social/Historical Characteristics affect this
  36. Population Composition
    • Pyramids
    • Tells us important information about economies
  37. Population Dynamics
    • Total fertility rate
    • Infant mortality rate
    • Life expectancy
    • Crude birth rate
    • Crude death rate
    • Replacement-level fertility
  38. Physical Characteristics
    • Water
    • Soil
    • Climate/Weather
  39. Social/Historical Characteristics
    • Trade patterns
    • Religion
    • Availability of technology
    • Social/political decisions
    • War
  40. Crude Density
    Total number of people divided by the total land area
  41. Dependency Ratio
    Measure of the economic impact of the young and old on the more economically productive members of the population
  42. Crude Birth Rate
    Ratio of the number of live births in a single year for every thousand people in the population
  43. Crude Death Rate
    The number of deaths in a single year for every thousand people in the population
  44. Natural Increase
    Difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate, which is the surplus of births relative to deaths
  45. Natural Decrease
    Difference between the crude death rate and the rude birth rate, which is the deficit of births relative to deaths
  46. Total Fertility Rate
    Average number of children a woman will have throughout the years that demographers have identified as her childbearing years, approximately ages 15-49
  47. Infant Mortality Rate
    Annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age compared to the total number of live births for that same year
  48. Life Expectancy
    Average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
  49. Demographic Transition
    • Replacement of high birth and death rates by low birth and death rates
    • Look at table!!
  50. Demographic Transition- High Stationary
    • Epidemics
    • Food supplies
  51. Demographic Transition- Early Expanding
    • Nutrition
    • Sanitation
    • Public health
    • Medecine
  52. Demographic Transition- Late Expanding/Low Stationary
    • Educational status of women rising
    • Delayed marriages
    • Birth control
  53. Protectionism
    Impose high tariffs on foreign imports of same goods
  54. Structural Adjustment Programs
    • In return for loans, borrowing countries must restructure economies in line with neoliberal economics - eg. market liberalization
    • • Deregulate banking sectors
    • • Removingtradebarriers
    • • Privatize natural resources and government industries
    • • Devalue currencies
    • • Balance budgets
    • • Pass legislation to encourage foreign investment
    • • Build up export economies
  55. Neoliberalism
    • Reduction in the role and budget of government, including reduced subsidies and the privatization of formerly publicly owned and operated concerns, such as utilities
    • Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan argued that protectionism and state-owned industries perpetuated dependency
    • Lower barriers to trade, would foster free trade
    • Poor countries strongly encouraged/required to: Devalue currency to encourage exports
    • Privatize state-owned industries
    • Compete for foreign investment
    • Social as well as economic reform
    • Open up previously government supplied services to private companies, like education and prison
  56. Dependency Theory
    • Argues that Modernization Theory does not account for historical geographical context of dependency of peripheral regions (late starters) on industrialized core countries (early starters)
    • Examples:
    • - Protectionism
    • - State-owned industries
    • - Bottom up development with focus on human welfare
  57. Rostow's Model of Economic Development
    • Suggested that countries passed through 5 stages of economic development
    • 1- Traditional Society
    • 2- Transitional Stage
    • 3- Take Off
    • 4- Drive to Maturity
    • 5- High Mass Consumption
  58. Stage 1: Traditional Society
    Subsistence, barter, and agriculture
  59. Stage 2: Transitional Stage
    Specialization, surpluses, and infrastructure
  60. Stage 3: Take Off
    Industrialization, growing investment, regional growth, and political change
  61. Stage 4: Drive to Maturity
    Diversification, innovation, less reliance on imports, and investments
  62. Stage 5: High Mass Consumption
    Consumer oriented, durable goods flourish, service sector becomes dominant
  63. Keys to Creating Wealth
    • Mass production
    • Specialization
    • Substitution of capitals and machines for human labor
  64. Modernization School of Thought
    Rostow's model of economic development
  65. Comparative Advantage
    Principle whereby places and regions specialize in activities for which they have the greatest advantage in productivity relative to other regions- or for which they have the least disadvantages
  66. Scale
    • Expressed as a ratio
    • Large scale
    • Medium-small
    • Small scale
  67. Spatial Diffusion
    • Way that things spread through space and over time
    • Very rarely random
    • Highlights important geographic relationships
  68. Absolute Space
    Precise measurement of location (x, y, z)
  69. Relative Space
    • Topological space
    • Map of Marta
  70. Cognitive Space
    Spatial impressions, mental maps
  71. Site
    Physical attributes of a location—its terrain, its soil, vegetation, and water sources, for example
  72. Situation
    • Location of a place relative to other places and human activities
    • 80 miles from Atlanta, near raw materials, far from job opportunities
  73. Distance-Decay Function
    • The rate at which a particular activity or process diminishes with increasing distance
    • Usually decreases with distance
  74. Friction of Distance
    • Deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity
    • Time and cost of overcoming distance
  75. Accesibility
    The opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations
  76. Spatial Interaction
    • Movement and flows involving human activity
    • Flow of goods, people, information between places
  77. Expansion Diffusion
    book
  78. Relocation Diffusion
    book
  79. Hierarchal Diffusion
    book
  80. Transferability
    notes
  81. Complementitary
    notes
  82. Social Construction
    A situated representation of some part of the world or milieu
  83. Milieu
    • All aspects of the cultural or physical environment
    • Includes: Cognitive space, cultural symbols, ideas, practices
  84. Core Regions
    • Regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies
    • Dominated by secondary sector activities
  85. Semi-peripheral Region
    Regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions
  86. Peripheral Regions
    Regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity, and economically and politically weak
  87. Minisystem
    Society with a single cultural base and a reciprocal social economy
  88. World Empire
    Minisystems that have been absorbed into a common political system while retaining their fundamental cultural differences
  89. World System
    Interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition
  90. Hearth Areas
    Geographic settings where new practices have developed and from which they have subsequently spread
  91. Colonization
    • The physical settlement of a new territory of people from a colonizing state
    • Expanding resource base needed to support growing populations
  92. Colonialism
    The establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society
  93. Law of Diminishing Returns
    Tendency for productivity to decline, after a certain point, with the continued application of capital and/or labor to a given resource base
  94. Imperialism
    Extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories
  95. International Division of Labor
    • Specialization, by countries, in particular products for export
    • Specialization of people, regions, and economies in certain kinds of economic activities
  96. Periphery
    Narrowly specialized economies dominated by primary sector activities
  97. Quaternary Activities
    Economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information
  98. Tertiary Activities
    Economic activities involving the sale and exchange of goods and services
  99. German Gastarbeiter
    • Post WWI economy needed workers
    • Guest worker programs 1st drew from poor
    • countries of Europe (Italy, Croatia, Spain, Greece) 1961 Agreement between Germany and Turkey
    • Largest guestworker population
    • 1/3 of foreign-born population
    • Workers expected to leave, but instability in Turkey encouraged workers to stay
  100. State-Owned Industries
    Incubate and sponsor key growth industries
  101. Modern World System
    An interdependent system of countries linked by political and economic competition: core, semi-periphery, periphery
  102. Mini-Systems
    • Societies with single cultural base
    • Several agricultural hearth areas
    • Geographical settings for emergence and spread of new practices
    • Higher density settlements -> Social hierarchies -> Specialization in crafts -> Barter and trade -> Hydraulic societies -> Conditions for emergence of world empires -> Redistributive/tributary social economies
    • Reciprocal
    • Social economy
  103. World-Empires
    • A group of mini-systems absorbed into common political system
    • Redistributive/tributary
    • Social economy
  104. World-System
    An interdependent system of countries linked by political and economic competition
  105. Military Technology and Military Power
    Used to dominate colonies and trade routes
  106. Mercantilism
    • Birth of Capitalism
    • Points to foreign trade as source of country’s enrichment
    • - Exploration for raw materials
    • - Value added in manufacturing
  107. Industrialization, Transportation, and Manufacturing
    What affects the intensification of the core
  108. Capital, Commodities, Communication, Cultural Products
    Colonies became dependent on core provision of...
  109. Map
    A graphical representation of the milieu
  110. Equal Area of Map
    • Relative size is preserved
    • Shape is distorted
  111. Compromise of Map
    Size and shape partially distorted
  112. Conformal of Map
    • Shapes are preserved
    • Relative size is distorted
  113. Projections
    • Cannot accurately reproduce SIZE, SHAPE and DISTANCE for a globe
    • Trade offs must be made
  114. Large Scale Map
    • Plat maps
    • City maps
    • Parks
    • 7 1⁄2’ quadrangles
    • Map ratio is not always noted, but altered in
    • reproduction
    • Objects are LARGE
  115. Small Scale Map
    • World
    • United States
    • Hemisphere
    • Continents
    • Map ratio is not always noted, but altered in
    • reproduction
    • Objects are SMALL
  116. Environmental Determinism
    • A doctrine that holds that human activities are determined, or controlled, by the physical attributes of geographic settings.
    • Example- Civilization and economic development made possible in Europe by invigorating climate.
    • - Considered over-simplistic
  117. Academic Disciplines:
    • Are ways of looking at the world
    • Set priorities about what is important to study and what isn’t
    • Develop and borrow concepts, definitions, tools, and theories from one another
    • Set standards for what makes research rigorous or persuasive
    • Are evolving social systems
    • Overlap
  118. Human-Environment Interactions
    Creation of distinctive landscapes and regions
  119. Quantitative Revolution
    • Rise of positivism, using scientific method to test hypotheses and build universal theories and laws
    • – Scientific statements must derive from verifiable observations
    • – Same methods apply to both human and natural sciences
  120. Systematic Approach
    • Particular social processes, their spatial constitution and outcomes
    • Processes are inter-related by:
    • Population, Cultural, Economic, Political, Urban
  121. Absolute Location
    Latitude/ longitude
  122. Relative Location
    USPLS, Metes and Bounds
  123. Cognitive Location
    • Place name or association
    • Addresses
  124. Absolute Distance
    Physical units of measure
  125. Relative Distance
    • Time, effort or cost
    • “three cigarettes by donkey”
  126. Cognitive Distance
    • Perceived
    • “Are we there yet?"
  127. Intervening Opportunity
    • Alternative origin or destination
    • Affects the volume and pattern of movements and flows

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