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- across species, especially among the young
- must have evolved
- Protects against danger and deprivation (Engle)
- Thought to be especially related to trauma at the core of subsequent depression (Engle)
"Sadness = I'll stay out of your way hypothesis"
sadness keeps you going from social situation you shouldnt be in because not up to par and you are also not welcome
“Sadness = pain or illness hypothesis”
- experience of sadness and experience of sickness overlap
- when you're sad you dont really want to do anything –> conservation of energy
- energy need to heal body so sadness conserves energy to that (C-W theory)
"Sadness = help me hypothesis"
awkward social cues that you need help
- mental illness that must be treated
- clinical significance (distress) - loss of motivation
- severity, duration
- presence of impairment
- "understandable" = proportionate to loss
- ppl may tend to want to isolate
Distinction btn sadness and depression: healthy and unhealthy
- doesnt necessarily need a precipitating event
- its healthy if its proportionate to the situation
- severity is subjective
- affects your routine
- affects motor skills
- loss of motivation
Dramatic changes that are symptoms of depression
- appetite (significant wt loss or wt gain)
- sleeping patterns (insomnia, waking too early, sleeping too much)
Loss of (in symptoms of depression)
- interest/please in activities formerly enjoyed (anhedonia)
Persistent feelings of (symptoms of depression)
- inappropriate guilt
- overwhelming sadness and grief
- self-blame, loss of self-esteem
Cognitive disturbance (symptoms of depression)
- inability to concentrate
- difficulty "thinking things thru"
- disturbed thinking
- recurring thoughts of death and/or suicide
- mental sharpness decreases (?)
Narcissistic trait in depression
- everything on their fault, an alternative reason isnt even considered
- self-attributions are made over attaining something to others, can look like ADD
- bipolar I and II
women and depression
- are "more" depressed –>report more or depressed more
- internalized more = more like typical depression
- affiliation – women tend to be closer to other women so they check up on each other –> persuaded more often to say theyre depressed and get help = all generalization
- 1st thing women do when theyre unhappy –> vent (some evidence its cathardic, talking about it = rumination)
- learned helplessness –> experience it more than men
- maybe women are less likely to let things go
men and depression
- aggressive behavior
- extreme anger and reckless behavior
- irritable and anxious
- hard to determine why more women than men
- neurons, synapses, NT
- serotonin, dopamine
- hormones, endocrinological
association btn serotonin and mood levels
drugs: lots of serotonin dumped in synapses at once, next day depletion of it = depression
crying and hormones
- levels of hormones correlate
- women: others believe more crying occurs with PMS –> not true
- men: low testosterone levels –> "PMS" symptoms
- boys/girls cry about the same
Psychodynamic model - "Cause of depression"
- pathology caused by childhood drama and frustration
- criticism: deemphasizes and minimizes influence of biological factors, later development, and present environment/circumstances
- doesnt allow biochemical affects
Behavioral model - "Cause of depression"
- based on principles of learning: ppl "learn" to be depressed
- operant conditioning: explains psychopathology thru learning from consequences
- neg. reinforcement –> shaping maladaptive behavior
- avoiding something aversive can lead to build up of problems which can overwhelm and cause depression
criticism of behavioral model
- we learn to be depressed because bad things happen that cause us to be sad
- oversimplified theory
Cognitive theory - "cause of depression"
- • thoughts and behavior mediate emotion
- • emotion and behavior = determined by interpretations - specific thoughts and beliefs
- irrational and maladaptive assumptions and thoughts = faulty beliefs
- • lead to habitual and automatic actions = abnormal behavior
- • lead to unwanted emotion
criticism of Cognitive theory
- it is distorted/faulty thinking – everything is about you (when you are depressed)
- criticism – doesnt emphasize that when ppl are feeling badly, they may just think that way (cant change how you feel?)
faulty conclusion based on little evidence. For depressives, any minor set back is seen as representative as their entire self worth.
where people selectively attend to certain experiences. People tend to see things that confirm what they want to believe.
assuming that things in one situation apply across the spectrum.
attaching too much importance or significance to an event or experience.
interpreting that an event is linked to one’s behavior or when no connection actually exists.
dichotomous approach to world in terms of extremes, evil, good, perfection, incompetence. Perfectionists are like this.
Biological /genetic influences create a predisposition, and stressors (trauma) cause predisposition to –> disorder