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Psyc 153 Midterm 2
Psyc 153 Lecture
across species, especially among the young
must have evolved
Protects against danger and deprivation (Engle)
Thought to be especially related to trauma at the core of subsequent depression (Engle)
"Sadness = I'll stay out of your way hypothesis"
sadness keeps you going from social situation you shouldnt be in because not up to par and you are also not welcome
“Sadness = pain or illness hypothesis”
experience of sadness and experience of sickness overlap
when you're sad you dont really want to do anything –> conservation of energy
energy need to heal body so sadness conserves energy to that (C-W theory)
"Sadness = help me hypothesis"
awkward social cues that you need help
mental illness that must be treated
clinical significance (distress) - loss of motivation
presence of impairment
"understandable" = proportionate to loss
ppl may tend to want to isolate
Distinction btn sadness and depression: healthy and unhealthy
doesnt necessarily need a precipitating event
its healthy if its proportionate to the situation
severity is subjective
affects your routine
affects motor skills
loss of motivation
Dramatic changes that are symptoms of depression
appetite (significant wt loss or wt gain)
sleeping patterns (insomnia, waking too early, sleeping too much)
Loss of (in symptoms of depression)
interest/please in activities formerly enjoyed (anhedonia)
Persistent feelings of (symptoms of depression)
overwhelming sadness and grief
self-blame, loss of self-esteem
Cognitive disturbance (symptoms of depression)
inability to concentrate
difficulty "thinking things thru"
recurring thoughts of death and/or suicide
mental sharpness decreases (?)
Narcissistic trait in depression
everything on their fault, an alternative reason isnt even considered
self-attributions are made over attaining something to others, can look like ADD
bipolar I and II
women and depression
are "more" depressed –>report more or depressed more
internalized more = more like typical depression
affiliation – women tend to be closer to other women so they check up on each other –> persuaded more often to say theyre depressed and get help = all generalization
1st thing women do when theyre unhappy –> vent (some evidence its cathardic, talking about it = rumination)
learned helplessness –> experience it more than men
maybe women are less likely to let things go
men and depression
extreme anger and reckless behavior
irritable and anxious
hard to determine why more women than men
neurons, synapses, NT
association btn serotonin and mood levels
drugs: lots of serotonin dumped in synapses at once, next day depletion of it = depression
crying and hormones
levels of hormones correlate
: others believe more crying occurs with PMS –> not true
: low testosterone levels –> "PMS" symptoms
boys/girls cry about the same
Psychodynamic model - "Cause of depression"
pathology caused by childhood drama and frustration
: deemphasizes and minimizes influence of biological factors, later development, and present environment/circumstances
doesnt allow biochemical affects
Behavioral model - "Cause of depression"
based on principles of learning
: ppl "learn" to be depressed
: explains psychopathology thru learning from consequences
neg. reinforcement –> shaping maladaptive behavior
avoiding something aversive can lead to build up of problems which can overwhelm and cause depression
criticism of behavioral model
we learn to be depressed because bad things happen that cause us to be sad
Cognitive theory - "cause of depression"
• thoughts and behavior mediate emotion
• emotion and behavior = determined by interpretations - specific thoughts and beliefs
irrational and maladaptive assumptions and thoughts = faulty beliefs
• lead to habitual and automatic actions = abnormal behavior
• lead to unwanted emotion
criticism of Cognitive theory
it is distorted/faulty thinking – everything is about you (when you are depressed)
criticism – doesnt emphasize that when ppl are feeling badly, they may just think that way (cant change how you feel?)
faulty conclusion based on little evidence. For depressives, any minor set back is seen as representative as their entire self worth.
where people selectively attend to certain experiences. People tend to see things that confirm what they want to believe.
assuming that things in one situation apply across the spectrum.
attaching too much importance or significance to an event or experience.
interpreting that an event is linked to one’s behavior or when no connection actually exists.
dichotomous approach to world in terms of extremes, evil, good, perfection, incompetence. Perfectionists are like this.
Biological /genetic influences create a predisposition, and stressors (trauma) cause predisposition to –> disorder