biology chapter 18
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- in bio, the practice of classifying organisms
- biologist use taxonomic systems to organize their knowledge of organisms. These systems attempt to provide consistent ways to name & categorize organisms
- biologists group organisms into large categories as well as smaller & more specific categories. The general term for any one of these categories is a taxon.
- plural taxa
long descriptive latin phrases used in early european naming systems
a taxon used to group similar species
- Carl Linnaeus's two word system.
- the unique two-part name for a species is now called a scientific name
- all scientific names for a species are made up of two Latin or latin like terms.
the scientific name
- all of the members of a genus share the genus name as a first term.
- the 2nd term if called the species identifier & its often more descriptive.
- Genus is capitalized the si is lowercased and both are italicized
the 8 basic levels of modern classification
domain- recognizes the most basic differences among cel types. All living things are grouped in one of 3 , kingdom- there are 6, phylum-subgroup of a kingdom. there are many within each kingdom, class, order, family, genus-make up of species with uniquely shared traits, species.
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the ancestral relationships between species.
similarities may evolve in groups that are not closely related to one another., often because the groups become adapted to similar habitats or lifestyles.
similarities that arise through convergent evolution
represents a hypothesis of the relationships between several groups.
- a method of analysis that infers phylogenies by careful comparisons of shared characters.
- its used to select the most likely phylogeny among a given set of organisms.
- its preferred by scientists
- cladistics focuses on finding characters that are shared between different groups of organisms because of shared ancestry.
- derived characters- one that evolved in one group but not another
- ancestral characters- evident in both groups
- cladistics infers relatedness by identifying shared derived & shared ancestral characters among groups while avoiding the use of analogous characters.
- organisms are grouped together through identification of their shared derived characters.
- all groups that arise from one point on a cladogram belong to a clade.
- a clade is a set of groups that are related by descent from a single ancestral lineage.
- Each clade is usually compared with an outgroup or group that lacks some of the shared characters.
the physical structure or anatomy of organisms.
principle of parsimony
it holds that the simplest explanation for something is the most reasonable, unless strong evidence suggests other wise.
the six kingdoms
(previously monera) eubacteria & archaebacteria. Protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia
the three domain system
bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
- define kingdoms
- cell type
- cell wall
- body type-unicellular or multicellular
- its equivalent to kingdom eubacteria
- prokaryotes that have a strong exterior cell wall & a unique genetic system.
- chemically unique cell wall & membranes & a unique genetic system .
- equivalent to kingdom archaebacteria
made up of kingdoms protista, fungi, plantae, & animalia
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