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This clause gives Congree the power to raise and spend revenue. Taxes must be levied at the same rate throughout the nation.
The federal governement borrows money by issuing bonds.
The exact meaning of "comerce" has caused the controversy. The trend has been to expand its meaning and consequently, the extent of Congress's powers.
(Naturalization and Bankruptcy)
"Naturalization" refers to the procedure by which a cititzen of a foreign nation becomes a citizen of the United States.
Control over money is an exclusive federal power; the states are forbidden to issue currency.
"Counterfeiting" means illegally imitating or forging. Congress has the power to punish the illegall crime of forging money.
Congress has the power to establish Post Offices and post Roads.
(Copyrights and Patents)
Under this provision, Congress has passed copyright and patent laws.
This provision allows Congress to establish a federal court system.
Congress has the power to protect American ships on the high seas.
While the Constitution gives Congress the right to declare war, the United States has sent trops without a congressional declaration.
This provision reveals the Farmers' fears of a standing army. "To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
Allows the government to establish a navy.
(Rules for Armed Forces)
Congress may pass regulations that deal with millitary discipline.
The "mililtia" is now called the National Guard. It is organized by the states.
Even though the National Guard is organized by the states, Congress has the authority to pass rules for governing its behavior.
This clause grants congress to make laws for Washington D.C.
One of the most important provisions. The "necessary and proper laws must be related to one of the 17 enumerated powers. "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the forgoing Powers.