nutritionFlash2.txt

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taliajoysmith
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651
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nutritionFlash2.txt
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2009-10-31 09:47:53
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Nutrition Midterm Review (2)
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Chapters 4, 5, & 6
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  1. 1. Simple carbs (sugars)
    • Monosaccarides:
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
    • Disaccarides:
    • Maltose
    • Sucrose
    • Lactose
  2. 2. Glucose
    Preferred source of energy for cells
  3. 3. Fructose
    Fruit sugar, packed with vitamins, minerals, water, and fiber
  4. 4. Galactose
    Not in nature; when linked with glucose, creates lactose, a sugar in milk
  5. 5. Maltose
    Glucose + glucose
  6. 6. Sucrose (table sugar)
    Glucose + fructose
  7. 7. Lactose (milk sugar)
    Glucose + galactose
  8. 8. Complex carbs (polysaccharides)
    • Starch
    • Glycogen
  9. 9. Starch
    Many glucose molecules linked together; storage form of glucose for plants
  10. 10. Glycogen
    Many glucose molecules linked together; storage form of glucose in humans
  11. 11. Fiber
    Ingestible, indigestible polysaccharides (most are chains); soluble and insoluble
  12. 12. Insoluble fiber
    • Cellulose
    • Hemicellulose
    • Lignins
    • Wheat bran
  13. 13. Soluble fiber
    • Pectins
    • Hemicellulose
    • Gums
    • Oat bran
  14. 14. Advantages of soluble fiber
    • 1. Promotes fullness feeling
    • 2. Feel fuller longer
    • 3. Lowers blood cholesterol
  15. 15. Advantages of insoluble fiber
    • 1. Speedy transit of waste
    • 2. Reduces incidence of colon cancer
    • 3. Softens stool
  16. 16. Advantages of both soluble and insoluble fiber
    • 1. Reduces energy consumption
    • 2. Stimulates digestive muscles
    • 3. Slows digestion
  17. 17. Enriched
    The addition of nutrients to refined foods
  18. 18. Refined
    Process by which the coarse parts of the food products are removed, along with many nutrients
  19. 19. Glycemic Index (GI)
    Ranking of foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose relative to a standard such as glucose or white bread
  20. 20. Types of fats
    • Triglycerides ("fat")
    • Phospholipids (structural fat)
    • Cholesterol (sterol)
  21. 21. Essential fatty acids
    • Come from polyunsaturated fats
    • Omega 3 = linolenic
    • Omega 6 = linoeic
  22. 22. Functions of fats
    • 1. Insulation
    • 2. Stores energy
    • 3. 9 cal/gram
    • 4. Protects organs
    • 5. Cell membrane
    • 6. Carry fat-soluble vitamins
    • 7. Flavor, aroma satiety
  23. 23. Functions of fatty acids
    • 1. Helps regulate blood pressure
    • 2. Helps form blood clots
    • 3. Helps with immune response
    • 4. Helps with blood lipid levels
    • 5. Works to prevent heart disease
  24. 24. Fat digestion
    Fat splits into smaller segments (in small intestine), bile required, transport, lipoproteins
  25. 25. Saturated vs. Unsaturated food sources
    • The more saturated a fat is, the higher the temperature at which it melts.
    • Saturated: animal fats, tropical oils
    • Unsaturated: vegetable oils
  26. 26. Hydrogenation
    The process of adding hydogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make solid and resistant to the chemical change of oxidation
  27. 27. Fatty acids
    Organic acids composed of carbon chains of various lengths
  28. 28. Omega 3 food sources
    • Flax
    • Walnuts
    • Fatty fish
  29. 29. Omega 6 food sources
    Vegetable oils
  30. 30. Transport of fats in body
    Fat is coated with a lipoprotein so it is both fat and water soluble
  31. 31. Low density lipoproteins (LDL)
    Made by the liver and carries cholesterol to cells in the body; bad cholesterol
  32. 32. High density lipoproteins (HDL)
    Picks up and carries cholesterol from tissues to the liver for dismantling; good cholesterol
  33. 33. Protein DRI
    • Adult males: 56 g/day
    • Adult females: 46 g/day
  34. 34. Protein digestion and absorption
    • 1. Ingested as polypeptides (long strands of amino acids)
    • 2. Enzymes in stomach break amino acid bonds
    • 3. Enzymes in small intestine break polypeptides into tripeptides, dipeptides, and single amino acids
    • 4. Single amino acids absorbed into body through small intestine
  35. 35. Amino acids
    • The building blocks of proteins. Made up of:
    • Amine group (w/nitrogen)
    • Carboxylic acid group
    • Side chain
  36. 36. Structural role of protein
    Replaces and repairs dead, worn out cells (protein turnover: recycling of amino acids)
  37. 37. Protein transportation
    Digestion and absorption; once inside, amino acids may be linked together in the body's cells to recreate proteins and be broken down to create energy, lipids, glucose, or cholesterol
  38. 38. Proteins building enzymes, hormones, and other compounds
    Amino acids and proteins play vital roles in creating enzymes, hormones, and chemical messengers of nervous system
  39. 39. Protein function in the immune system
    Building antibodies, which destroy pathogens
  40. 40. Protein balancing fluid/electrolyte balance
    Proteins keep water in proper compartments and regulate passage of sodium and potassium into and out of cell
  41. 41. Protein acid-base balance
    Proteins buffer, either releasing or removing H+ from the blood because blood pH needs to be rigidly maintained (7.4)
  42. 42. Protein blood clotting
    Proteins form clot at site of injury, later forming scar tissue with collagen
  43. 43. Protein energy
    Amino acids used to yield energy (can be converted tp glucose, fatty acids, glycogen, or cholesterol)
  44. 44. Protein food sources
    • Animal products
    • Legumes
    • Grains
    • Vegetables
  45. 45. Complete proteins
    Contains an adequate proportion of all essential amino acids for dietary needs
  46. 46. Incomplete proteins
    Low or lacking in one or more of the amino acids we need to build cells
  47. 47. Essential amino acids
    Must be obtained from foods because body either doesnt make them or makes too few
  48. 48. Complementary proteins
    2 or more proteins whose amino acids complement each other so that the amino acids missing from one protein are provided by the others
  49. 49. Protein deficiency
    Caused by lack of total food energy, not meeting DRIs

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