Mem and Cog Exam 1- ch 3,4

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Mem and Cog Exam 1- ch 3,4
2011-02-11 00:24:11
Mem Cog Exam

Mem and Cog Exam 1ch 3,4
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  1. intentional learning
    trying to learn.
  2. incidental learning
    just happening to learn information during the course of other activities.
  3. levels of processing
    degree to which people elaborate on information when they study it.
  4. rote rehearsal
    repeating info over and over.
  5. elaborative rehearsal
    connecting of knowledge.
  6. Dual Code theory
    people sotre info in at least two forms: verbal/linguistic and a mental image code.
  7. generation effect
    info that a person generates is remembered better than info that is simply read or heard.
  8. aha effect
    when people solve a puzzle or problem when trying to understand something.
  9. enactment effect
    memory is better when ppl perform a task in comparison to watching someone else do it or reading about it.
  10. automaticity of encoding
    info is stored in memory with very little effort.
  11. savings
    after info has been learned and forgotten a person requires less effort (and time) to learn it again.
  12. picture superiority effect
    • pictures are remembered better than words
    • we are better attuned to processing perceptual than linguistic info.
  13. concreteness effect
    concrete info (car, house) is remembered better than abstract info (truth, betrayal)
  14. Pollyanna principle
    tendency to better remember positive than negative info
  15. frequency
    • memory is better for frequent info for recall tests
    • better for rare info for recognition tests.
  16. free recall
    people report as much info as they can
  17. intrusions
    • errors of omission or commission
    • info people report as memories that are not part of the event.
  18. forced recall
    forced to report a certain amount of information (not allowed to omit info because the person is afraid its wrong)
  19. cued recall
    experimenter designates some of the info as target info the participant must recall.
  20. retrieval plan
    people often develop a set of retrieval strategies.
  21. forgetting curve
    the more time that has passed, the less likely a person will remember a given piece of info.
  22. overlearning
    when a person continues to study info after its already possible to recall it without errors.
  23. reminiscence
    principle of remembering previously forgotten info.
  24. hypermnesia
    • a person tries to recall info several times in a row, the rate of reminiscence may be greater than the rate of forgetting.
    • person is cumulatively remembering more and more each time.
  25. recognition
    a matching process in which the contents of othe environment are compared with the contents of memory.
  26. old-new recognition
    person is given an item and asked to indicate whether it is old or new.
  27. discrimination
    degree to which old items can be distinguished from new ones in memory.
  28. bias
    degree to which a person is willing to accept what he remembers as new or old.
  29. false alarm
    calling something old that's in fact new.
  30. signal detection theory
    method of estimating discrimination and bias is called.
  31. forced choice recognition
    ppl are given several items and are asked to indicate which one is old.
  32. collaborative inhibition
    memory is worse on recall tests in groups.
  33. collaborative facilitation
    memory is better on recall tests of recognition.
  34. priming
    speeding up response time to info that immediately follows related info.
  35. inter-item delays
    the amount of time that has passed between recalled items.
  36. metamemory
    awareness of one's own memory and memory processes.
  37. hindsight bias
    tendency to distort memories so they conform to one's current goals or circumstances.
  38. sensory registers
    briefest memory systems.
  39. anorthoscopic perception
    seeing-more-than-is-there phenomenon.
  40. trans-saccadic memory
    keeping track of basic characteristics of an object.
  41. short-term memory
    • portion of memory responsible for processing and retaining information .beyond the sensory registers
    • 1 min or less without active processing
  42. chunking
    taking smaller units of information and grouping them into a larger unit.
  43. decay
    primary cause of forgetting is the passage of time.
  44. interference
    • info in STM interferes with or in some way blocks or hinders the retrieval of other info.
    • primary cause of forgetting in STM
  45. serial self-terminating
    going through items one at a time and once people get to the item in memory the search stops or terminates.
  46. parallel search
    all items in STM are available more or less at once.
  47. serial exhaustive search
    going through things one at a time in memory, and instead of stopping a search people would continue until they had gone through the whole set.
  48. serial position curve
    a U-shaped function with memory being better for info at the beginning and end of a list, info inbetween is less well remembered.
  49. primacy effect
    superior memory for information at the beginning of a list.
  50. recency effect
    superior memory for info at the end of a list.
  51. suffix effect
    • recency effect is diminished when extra information is presented at the end of a list.
    • the more the suffix is like the info in the list the greater the amount of interference and effect. (buzzer vs a voice at the end of a list presented by voice)
    • occurs for visual and auditory STM
  52. slot based models
    assumes that STM is composed of a series of ordered slots and that info is dropped into each one as it's encountered.
  53. chaining models
    assumes that STM info contains a series of associative links.
  54. perturbation model
    info in STM is organized into a hierarchy of chunks.
  55. inhibition models
    inhibition, a mechanism of attention, is used to recover serial order.
  56. repetition blindness
    • people read sentences presented in a rapid serial visual preentation
    • words presented one at a time in same location on a screen quickly but legibly
    • when a word is repeated in a relatively short time span, people claim to have not seen the word.
  57. context-based models
    • context is constantly in flux even if at a very subtle level
    • environmen and person's internal context