Mem and Cog Exam 1- ch 3,4
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trying to learn.
just happening to learn information during the course of other activities.
levels of processing
degree to which people elaborate on information when they study it.
repeating info over and over.
connecting of knowledge.
Dual Code theory
people sotre info in at least two forms: verbal/linguistic and a mental image code.
info that a person generates is remembered better than info that is simply read or heard.
when people solve a puzzle or problem when trying to understand something.
memory is better when ppl perform a task in comparison to watching someone else do it or reading about it.
automaticity of encoding
info is stored in memory with very little effort.
after info has been learned and forgotten a person requires less effort (and time) to learn it again.
picture superiority effect
- pictures are remembered better than words
- we are better attuned to processing perceptual than linguistic info.
concrete info (car, house) is remembered better than abstract info (truth, betrayal)
tendency to better remember positive than negative info
- memory is better for frequent info for recall tests
- better for rare info for recognition tests.
people report as much info as they can
- errors of omission or commission
- info people report as memories that are not part of the event.
forced to report a certain amount of information (not allowed to omit info because the person is afraid its wrong)
experimenter designates some of the info as target info the participant must recall.
people often develop a set of retrieval strategies.
the more time that has passed, the less likely a person will remember a given piece of info.
when a person continues to study info after its already possible to recall it without errors.
principle of remembering previously forgotten info.
- a person tries to recall info several times in a row, the rate of reminiscence may be greater than the rate of forgetting.
- person is cumulatively remembering more and more each time.
a matching process in which the contents of othe environment are compared with the contents of memory.
person is given an item and asked to indicate whether it is old or new.
degree to which old items can be distinguished from new ones in memory.
degree to which a person is willing to accept what he remembers as new or old.
calling something old that's in fact new.
signal detection theory
method of estimating discrimination and bias is called.
forced choice recognition
ppl are given several items and are asked to indicate which one is old.
memory is worse on recall tests in groups.
memory is better on recall tests of recognition.
speeding up response time to info that immediately follows related info.
the amount of time that has passed between recalled items.
awareness of one's own memory and memory processes.
tendency to distort memories so they conform to one's current goals or circumstances.
briefest memory systems.
keeping track of basic characteristics of an object.
- portion of memory responsible for processing and retaining information .beyond the sensory registers
- 1 min or less without active processing
taking smaller units of information and grouping them into a larger unit.
primary cause of forgetting is the passage of time.
- info in STM interferes with or in some way blocks or hinders the retrieval of other info.
- primary cause of forgetting in STM
going through items one at a time and once people get to the item in memory the search stops or terminates.
all items in STM are available more or less at once.
serial exhaustive search
going through things one at a time in memory, and instead of stopping a search people would continue until they had gone through the whole set.
serial position curve
a U-shaped function with memory being better for info at the beginning and end of a list, info inbetween is less well remembered.
superior memory for information at the beginning of a list.
superior memory for info at the end of a list.
- recency effect is diminished when extra information is presented at the end of a list.
- the more the suffix is like the info in the list the greater the amount of interference and effect. (buzzer vs a voice at the end of a list presented by voice)
- occurs for visual and auditory STM
slot based models
assumes that STM is composed of a series of ordered slots and that info is dropped into each one as it's encountered.
assumes that STM info contains a series of associative links.
info in STM is organized into a hierarchy of chunks.
inhibition, a mechanism of attention, is used to recover serial order.
- people read sentences presented in a rapid serial visual preentation
- words presented one at a time in same location on a screen quickly but legibly
- when a word is repeated in a relatively short time span, people claim to have not seen the word.
- context is constantly in flux even if at a very subtle level
- environmen and person's internal context
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