nutritionFlash3.txt

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taliajoysmith
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652
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nutritionFlash3.txt
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2009-10-31 09:50:50
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Nutrition Midterm Review (3)
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Chapter 7
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  1. 1. Water soluble vitamins
    • 1. Bs and C
    • 2. For the most part, not stored in the body
    • 3. Heat-sensitive
    • 4. Can be oxidized
    • 5. If cooked in water, vitamin will be lost
  2. 2. Fat soluble vitamins
    • 1. A, E, D, & K
    • 2. Stored in the body
  3. 3. B vitamins functions
    Part of coenzymes, metabolism
  4. 4. B vitamins
    • Thiamin
    • Riboflavin
    • Niacin
    • Pantothenic acid
    • Biotin
    • B6
    • Folate
    • B12
  5. 5. Coenzyme
    A molecule that combines with an enzyme and activates its metabolism
  6. 6. B Vitamins that release energy from CHO, fat, and protein
    • Thiamin
    • Riboflavin
    • Niacin
    • Pantothenic acid
    • Biotin
  7. 7. B vitamin that helps the body use amimo acids to synthesize proteins
    B6
  8. 8. B vitamins that help in cell proliferation (RBCs and the cells of the GI tract)
    • Folate
    • B12
  9. 9. Thiamin (B1) food sources
    • Pork products
    • Sunflower seeds
    • Enriched and whole grain cereals
  10. 10. Thiamin fuctions
    Cellular energy metabolism and nerve responses of muscle tissue
  11. 11. Beriberi
    Thiamin deficiency; loss of sensation in hands and feet, muscular weakness, advancing paralysis
  12. 12. Riboflavin (B2) food sources
    • Enriched breads
    • Cereals
    • Pastas
    • Milk and dairy products
    • Spinach
    • Eggs and meat
  13. 13. Riboflavin functions
    Coenzyme activity in cellular energy metabolism
  14. 14. Riboflavin deficiency
    Cracks and redness at corner of eyes and eyelids, sensitivity to light, skin rashes
  15. 15. Niacin (B3) food sources
    • Chicken
    • Tuna
    • Pork
    • Enriched cereals
    • Mushrooms
    • Baked potato
  16. 16. Niacin functions
    Coenzyme in cellular energy metabolism
  17. 17. Pellagra
    • Niacin deficiency, the 4 Ds:
    • Diarrhea
    • Dermatitis
    • Dementia
    • Death
  18. 18. Folate food sources
    • Leafy green vegetables
    • Fresh uncooked vegetables and fruits
    • Avacados
    • Beets
    • Lentils
    • Enriched grain products
    • Eggs
  19. 19. Folate functions
    Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis, works with B12 to make new RBCs
  20. 20. Anemia
    Folate deficiency; diminished immunity and abnormal digestive function
  21. 21. Neural tube defect (NTD)
    Folate deficiency: abnormalities of brain and spinal cord apparent at birth (cleft lip, miscarriages, death shortly after birth) directly related to folate consumption before and during pregnancy
  22. 22. B12 food sources
    • Chicken liver
    • Sirloin steak
    • Pork
    • Tuna
    • Swiss cheese
    • Cottage cheese
  23. 23. B12 functions
    Close w/folate, depend on each other for activation; helps maintain nerve sheaths that protect nerve fibers
  24. 24. Pernicious anemia
    B12 deficiency: large immature RBCs and damage to nervous system (folate sometimes masks it, esp. In vegetarians)
  25. 25. B6 food sources
    • Meat
    • Fish
    • Poultry
    • Liver
    • Legumes
    • Fruits
    • Potatoes
    • Whole grains
    • Soy
  26. 26. B6 functions
    100+ reactions in body tissues: helps convert amino acids to nonessential amino acids that may be lacking cells, aids in conversion of tryptophan to niacin, role in synthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitters, critical to developing brain and nervous system of a fetus
  27. 27. B6 deficiency
    General symptoms such as weakness, depression, confusion, irritability, insomnia, and anemia
  28. 28. Pantothenic acid food sources
    Ubiquitous
  29. 29. Pantothenic acid functions
    Energy metabolism, a component of a key coenzyme that makes the release of energy from cholesterol, protein, and fat possible
  30. 30. Biotin food sources
    Ubiquitous
  31. 31. Biotin functions
    Cofactor for several enzymes in the metabolism of cholesterol, fat, and protein, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis
  32. 32. Vitamin C food sources
    • Citrus fruits
    • Dark
    • Leafy vegetables
    • Cantaloupe
    • Strawberries
    • Peppers
    • Lettuce
    • Tomatoes
    • Potatoes
    • Papayas
    • Mangoes
  33. 33. Vitamin C functions
    • Collagen formation
    • Antioxidant
    • Aids iron absorption
    • Formation of thryoxin
    • Supports immune function
  34. 34. Scurvy
    • Vitamin C deficiency that is a result of breakdown of collagen. Symptoms:
    • Loss of appetite
    • Growth cessation
    • Tenderness to touch
    • Weakness
    • Bleeding gums
    • Loose teeth
    • Tiny red skin spots
  35. 35. Vitamin A food sources
    • Animal protein (egg yolk, liver, butter)
    • Beta carotene (carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach)
    • Lycopene (tomatoes)
  36. 36. Vitamin A functions
    • Gene expression
    • Vision in dim light
    • Maintenence of body linings, skin, cornea
    • Immune defences/anti-infective
    • Dismantling of old bones
    • Normal cell development
    • Beta carotene is antioxidant
    • Toxicity: not toxic but can turn skin orange
  37. 37. Vitamin A deficiency
    • Night blindness
    • Blindness
    • Keratinization: accumulation of keratin in a tissue
  38. 38. Vitamin D food sources
    • Sunlight
    • Milk (fortified)
  39. 39. Vitamin D functions
    • Raises blood calcium and phosphorus by increasing absorption from digestive tract, withdrawing calcium from bones and stimulating retention by kidneys (helps maintain calcium levels in blood and bone integrity)
    • Hormone
  40. 40. Rickets
    Vitamin D deficiency in children with abnormal bone growth, bowed legs, outward bowed chest
  41. 41. Osteomalacia
    Vitamin D deficiency in adults with overabundance of unmimeralized bone protein; bending of spine and bowing of legs
  42. 42. Vitamin E food sources
    • Vegetable oil
    • Wheat germ oil
    • Safflower oil
    • Canola oil
    • Sunflower seeds
    • Wheat germ
  43. 43. Vitamin E functions
    • Antioxidant
    • White and red blood cells depend on it
  44. 44. Tocopherol
    Kind of alcohol; active form of vitamin E
  45. 45. Vitamin E deficiency
    • Dissolves in fat, may occur in people with fat malabsorption
    • Erythrocyte hemolysis (infants RBCs rupture causing anemia, impaired movement, loss of muscle coordination
  46. 46. Vitamin K food sources
    • Broccoli
    • Cauliflower
    • Cabbage
    • Canola oil
    • Spinach
    • Salad greens
    • Brussel sprouts
    • Soybeans
  47. 47. Vitamin K functions
    Synthesize proteins that help clot the blood, synthesis of bone proteins
  48. 48. Jaundice
    Vitamin K toxicity, breakage of RBCs that releases pigment, colors skin yellow, liver releases bilirubin
  49. 49. Vitamin K deficiency
    • Hemorrhage
    • Poor skeletal mineralization
  50. 50. Vitaman K creation
    Bacteria in intestine makes it
  51. 51. Folate DRI
    400 ug/day
  52. 52. Vitamin E DRI
    15 mg/day

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