HISTOLOGY-Lecture 2-Cell Cycle/Cell Division

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lfield5
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HISTOLOGY-Lecture 2-Cell Cycle/Cell Division
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2011-02-11 00:26:41
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HISTOLOGY
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Lecture 2-Cell Cycle/Cell Division
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  1. Cell Cycle (phase overview)
    • Interphase
    • -G1 - Gap 1 phase
    • -S - synthesis phase
    • -G2 - Gap 2 phase

    Mitosis - cell division

    G0 - outsied phase
  2. Interphase
    • G1- gap phase
    • -synthesis of
    • RNA
    • regulatory proteins for DNA replication
    • enzymes for synthetic activities
    • -reestablish nucleoli
    • -duplication of centrioles begun
    • -nucleoli reappear
    • -growth of cell occurs

    • S- synthesis phase
    • -duplication of genome (replication)
    • twice the amount of DNA now available
    • - nucleoproteins imported & incorporated
    • -duplication of centrioles completed

    • G2 -gap 2 phase
    • -synthesis of
    • RNA needed for cell division
    • proteins needed for cell division
    • tubulin needed for microtubule production
    • DNA analyzed for errors & corrected
    • -storage of energy needed for cell division
  3. G0 - outside phase
    • cell in permanent G1 phase
    • cell cannot divide

    • ex:
    • -neurons
    • -muscles cells
  4. G1- gap phase
    • -synthesis of
    • RNA
    • regulatory proteins for DNA replication
    • enzymes for synthetic activities

    • -reestablish nucleoli
    • -duplication of centrioles begun
    • -nucleoli reappear
    • -growth of cell occurs

    phase of interphase
  5. S- synthesis phase
    • -duplication of genome (replication)
    • twice the amount of DNA now available

    • - nucleoproteins imported & incorporated
    • -duplication of centrioles completed

    phase of interphase
  6. G2 -gap 2 phase
    • -synthesis of
    • RNA needed for cell division
    • proteins needed for cell division
    • tubulin needed for microtubule production
    • DNA analyzed for errors & corrected

    -storage of energy needed for cell division

    phase of interphase
  7. Mitosis (definition)
    division of the nucleus that results in the daughter cells having the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
  8. Mitosis (characterized by)
  9. -one division
    • -daughter cells have the same # of chromosomes as the parent cell
    • -2 daughter cells are produced
    • -found in somatic cells
  10. Mitosis (Steps)
    • Karyokinesis (division of the nucleus)
    • -Prophase
    • -Metaphase
    • -Anaphase
    • -Telophase

    Cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm)
  11. Karyokinesis (definition and steps)
    division of the nucleus during Mitosis

    • steps:
    • -Prophase
    • -Metaphase
    • -Anaphase
    • -Telophase
  12. Prophase (steps)
    • 1. chromatin -> chromosomes
    • - chromatids-half chromosome
    • -centromere-constricted part of chromosome
    • -kinetochore - microtubule organizing center (MTOC) developes from here

    2. Nucleoli disappear

    • 3.Centrosome divides
    • -one centriole
    • -one MTOC

    4. one centriole + one MTOC migrates

    • 5.spindle apparatus forms from MTOC
    • -astral rays
    • -spindle fibers


    *Prometaphase begins
  13. Prometaphase (steps)
    1. nuclear membrane disappears

    • 2. spindle fibers
    • - reach chromosomes
    • -polar microtubules attach to microtubules from other side
    • -kinetochore microtubules attach to kinetochore
  14. Metaphase (steps)
    1. chromosomes maximally condensed

    2.spindles attached to kinetochore

    3. chormosomes line up at equator
  15. Anaphase (steps)
    1. sister chromatids pull appart to opposite poles

    2. cytokinesis begins
  16. Telophase
    1. nuclear membrane reappears

    2. chromosomes -> chromatin

    3. nucleoli reappear (NOR function) - G1

    4.spindle apparatus disappears
  17. Cytokinesis
    division of cytoplasm

    begins during anaphase

    actin & myosin involved
  18. Meiosis (define)
    cell division that results in the daughter cells having 1/2 the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
  19. Meiosis (characterized by)
    -two divisions

    -daughter cells have 1/2 the chromosomes of the parent cell

    -4 daughter cells are produced

    -gamete production
  20. Meiosis (stages)
    • Reductional Division
    • 1. Prophase 1
    • 2. Metaphase 1
    • 3. Anaphase 1
    • 4. Telophase 1
    • 5. Interphase

    • Equatorial Division
    • 1. Prophase 2
    • 2. Metaphase 2
    • 3. Anaphase 2
    • 4. Telophase 2
  21. Reductional Division of Meiosis
    1. Prophase 1

    2. Metaphase 1

    3. Anaphase 1

    4. Telophase 1

    5. Interphase
  22. Equatorial Division of Meiosis
    1. Prophase 2

    2. Metaphase 2

    3. Anaphase 2

    4. Telophase 2
  23. Prophase 1 (characteristics)
    • nuclear membrane breaks down
    • chromatin ->chromosomes
    • nucleoli disappear
    • centriole migrates
    • spindle apparatus forms
    • homologus cheomosomes synapse
    • crossing over takes place
  24. Prophase 1 (subdivisions)
    • leptotene
    • zygotene
    • pachytene
    • diplotene
    • diakinesis
  25. Leptotene
    subdivision of Prophase 1 of Meiosis

    chromatin condensation begins
  26. Zygotene
    subdivision of Prophase 1 of Meiosis

    • chromosome condensation
    • chromosomes become visible
    • homologous chromosomes synapse
  27. Pachytene
    subdivision of Prophase 1 of Meiosis

    • chromosome condensation
    • crossing over occurs
  28. Diplotene
    subdivision of Prophase 1 of Meiosis

    • chromosome condensation
    • chiasmata appear
    • (-crossing over points become visible)
  29. Diakinesis
    subdivision of Prophase 1 of Meiosis

    • max condensation
    • nucleoli disappear
    • nuclear membrane disappears
    • centriole migrates
    • spindle apparatus forms
  30. Metaphase 1
    • homologous chromosomes line up
    • spindle fibers attach to kinetochore
  31. Anaphase 1
    homologous chromosomes separate
  32. Telophase 1
    • nuclear membrane reforms
    • chromosomes -> chromatin
    • nucleoli reforms
    • spindle apparatus disappears
    • cytokinesis occurs
  33. Interphase
    • short
    • no S phase
  34. Equatorial Division
    * very mitotic

    • 1. Prophase 2
    • 2. Metaphase 2
    • 3. Anaphase 2
    • 4. Telophase 2
  35. Prophase 2
    • nuclear membrane disappears
    • chromatin -> chromosomes
    • nucleoli disappear
    • one centriole migrates
    • spindle apparatus forms
  36. Metaphase 2
    • chromosomes line up in the middle
    • spindle fibers attach
  37. Anaphase 2
    chromatids separate
  38. Telophase 2
    • nuclear membrane reforms
    • chromsomes -> chromatin
    • nucleoli reforms
    • spindle apparatus disappears
    • cytokinesis

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