Comp Pt

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sthomp88
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65223
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Comp Pt
Updated:
2011-02-09 09:25:21
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exam one reveiw
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module four
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  1. What are 6 other health considerations that are often seen in pts with cleft lip or palat?
    • other congenital anomalies - often accompany the disability
    • facial deformities
    • infections - upper respiratory and middle ear
    • airway and breathing difficulties
    • speech difficulty
    • hearing loss
  2. true or false. There is rarely a single cause for cleft lip or palate
    true
  3. During what time of pregnency is the significant time for influences from environmental factors for cleft lip and palat?
    early in first trimester
  4. What are 5 environmental risk factors for cleft lip or palate?
    • tobacco use
    • alcohol consumption
    • teratogenic agents: phenytoin, vitamin A (isotretinoin), corticosteriods, drugs of abuse
    • inadequate diet - folic acid
    • lack of adequate prenateal care
  5. How can a cleft lip or palate affect tooth development?
    higher incidence of missing and supernumerary teeth, and abnormalities of tooth forme
  6. how can cleft lip or palate affect occlusion?
    high percentage require ortho care because of malocclusion, and new ortho therapy may be required after each surgery
  7. How does an open palate affect a person with cleft palate?
    can't suck on a nipple as a baby, and breast milk may pass into the nasal cavity
  8. how can cleft lip or palate affect muscle coordination?
    • lack of coordination of lips, tongue, cheeks, floor of mouth, or throat
    • compensatory habits formed to produce normal sounds in speech
  9. How can cleft lip or palate affect periodontal tissues?
    • dental biofilm accumulates more around irregularly positioned teeth, and inability to keep lips closed around mouth during breathing
    • early perio with bone loss is often seen at cleft sites
    • perio loss in layers is greates at cleft sites
  10. Why are dental caries seen so often in pts with cleft lip and palate?
    • malpositioned teeth
    • mastication problems
    • diet selection
    • biofilm retention
  11. cleft lip and/or palate frequently occur as part of a _________ with other __________
    • syndrome
    • birth defects
  12. How often should dental appointments be scheduled for a pt with cleft lip or palate?
    every 3 or 4 months
  13. What are 4 objectives for hygiene treatment of pt with cleft lip or palate?
    • review bioflim control measures
    • provide encouragement to pt to maintaint health of supporting structures
    • remove all calc and smooth the tooth surface
    • supervise dental caries prevention program
  14. What are 3 appointment considerations seen with pts with cleft lip or palate?
    • pt apprehension - due to being in hospital settings so often
    • communication - speech or hearing may be compromised
    • motivation - pts may be quiet, unresponsive, or overly bold
  15. 3 important areas to focus on in pt instruction for the pt with a cleft lip or palate include:
    • personal oral care procedures
    • diet
    • smoking cessation
  16. a condition in which injury to parts of the brain has occurred prenatally, natally, or postnatally and has resulted in paralysis or disruption of motor parts
    cerebral palsy
  17. What are 5 possible causes of cerebral palsy befor birth?
    • anoxia during pregnancy
    • infection during pregnancy
    • blood type incompatibility
    • nutrutional lack
    • maternal diabetes
  18. What are 4 possible causes of cerebral palsy later in life than in pregnancy?
    • infectious disease - meningitis or encephalitis
    • lead poisoning
    • direct trauma from accidents or battering
  19. What are 6 oral manifestations seen in pts with cerebral palsy?
    • disturbance of musculature - facial grimace, asymmetry, probems chewing and swallowing
    • maloccluision
    • attrition
    • fractured teeth
    • dental caries
    • periodontal infections: phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth, biofilm control
  20. How often are patients with cerebral palsy mentally retarded?
    in fewer than 50% of individuals
  21. Name 11 other health considerations besides oral manifestations seen in pts with cerebral palsy
    • spasticity
    • athetosis
    • ataxia
    • rigidity
    • tremor
    • flaccidity
    • mixed combo of symptoms
    • mental retardation
    • learning disability
    • seizures
    • sensory disorders - seeing and hearing
  22. congenital defect or opening in the spinal column. A portion of the spinal membranes may protrude through the opeing with or with out spinal cord tissue
    • spina bifida
    • myelomeningocele
  23. What are 3 important considerations in dental care for a pt with myelomeningocele (or spina bifida)?
    • premedication - pts with ventriculoatrial shunts require it
    • latex allergy - common in pts with spina bifida
    • gingival care - pts who suffer from seizures may be taking phenytoin and suffer from gingival hyperplasia
  24. disease characterized by progressive severe weakness and loss of use of group of muscles
    muscular dystrophies
  25. What are the 2 main types of muscular dystrophies?
    • duchenne
    • facioscapulohumeral
  26. the duchenne type of muscular dystrophy is limited to ________ and transmitted by _________ carriers
    • males
    • female
  27. What is the age of onset for the duchenne type of muscular dystrophy?
    usually between ages 2-5, but before 10
  28. What are 6 physical manifestations of duchenne muscular dystrophy?
    • enlargement of certain muscles
    • weakness of hips - frequent falls
    • lordosis - abdominal protuberance
    • gait - waddle, and difficult balance
    • progressive muscular wasting
    • intellectual impairment
  29. true or false. Males and females are equally affected by the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type
    true
  30. What is the age of onset for pts with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy?
    between 10 and 18 yrs
  31. What are some characteristics that show a pt has facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy?
    • facial muscles involved - orbicularis oris
    • prominent scapulae with weak shoulder muscles
    • difficulty closing eyes completely
  32. no perception of visula stimuli; lack or loss of ability to see
    blindness
  33. less than 20/200 vision with corrective eyeglasses
    legal blindness
  34. What are the 7 leading causes of age-related blindness?
    • diabetic retinopathy
    • age-related macular degeneration
    • senile cataracts
    • glaucoma
    • vascular disease
    • trauma
    • infection
  35. What is the origin of at least one half of the blindness in children? Give examples
    • prenatal origing from:
    • infections such as rubella
    • syphilis
    • toxoplasmosis
  36. What are 3 other, not prenatal, causes of blindness in children?
    • injuries
    • neoplasms
    • retinopathy of prematurity
  37. What are 4 important factors to take into consideration with the blind patient?
    • Tell pt about things in great detail
    • pt relies more on other senses cuz of lack of site
    • keep things neat and orderly, let them know if you've rearranged something
    • be careful with your tone of voice
  38. How should you handle a situation when the blind pt has a dog guide?
    • do not disturb the dog
    • ask pt were the do would be best placed or seated
  39. disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always associated with increased pressure of fluid in the eye
    glaucoma
  40. true or false. tilting a pt back with glaucoma may increase pain and pressure in the eyts, so avoid it
    true
  41. true or false. sensitivity to light is characteristicc of many eye conditions, so avoid shining the light in their eyes
    true
  42. When hearing is impaired to the extent that it has no practical value for the purpose of spoken communication, a person is considered what?
    deaf
  43. When hearing is defective but functional with or without a hearing aid, what terms are used?
    • person who is hard of hearing
    • hearing loss
  44. What are 2 main causes of hearing impairments?
    • heredity - prenatal infection in mother like rubella or birth trauma
    • chronic inner ear infections or infectious diseases such as meningitis, trauma, and toxic effects
  45. outer or middle ear invovlement of the conduction pathways to the inner ear
    conductive hearing loss
  46. damage to the sensory hair cells of the inner ear or the nerves that supply the inner ear
    sensorineural hearing loss
  47. combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss
    mixed hearing loss
  48. damage of the nerves or nuclei of the central nervous system in the brain or the pathways to the brain
    central hearing loss
  49. What act requires clinicians to acquire certain aids and services such as removal of physical barriers, the use of braille materials, having large printed materials, written instructions, taped texts, qualified interpreters, assistive listening head sets, and text telephone devices
    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  50. absence of sense of smell by damage to olfactory nerve
    anosmia
  51. lessened sensitivity to odors
    hyosmia
  52. a disorder with the sense of smell
    dysmosmia
  53. olfactory dysfunction characterized by the inability of the brain to properly identify an odors natural smell
    parosmia
  54. olfactory hallucinations
    phantosmia
  55. inability to recognize objects by use of the senses
    agnosia
  56. loss of taste functions in the tongue
    ageusia
  57. reduced ability to taste things
    hypguesia
  58. distortion of the sense of taste
    dysguesia

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