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2010-02-11 10:12:25
Exam 2

Chapter 7
Show Answers:

  1. ____ total bones in the adult skeleton.
  2. The skeletal system is divided into two divisions:
    • 1. Axial skeleton
    • 2. Appendicular skeleton
  3. Division of the skeletal system that contains 80 bones (skull, ribs, vertebra)
    Axial skeleton
  4. Division of the skeletal system that contains 126 bones (pelvic girdle, pectoral girdle)
    Appendicular skeleton
  5. What are the two major divisions of the bones of the skull?
    • 1. Cranial bones
    • 2. Facial bones
  6. How many bones make up the cranial bones and what are their functions?
    8; house and protect the brain
  7. How many bones make up the facial bones and what are their functions?
    14; protect things like your senses (eyes, nose, mouth, openings to the digestive system, and respiratory system)
  8. List the 8 bones that make up the cranial bones:
    • - Frontal (1)
    • - Parietal (2)
    • - Temporal (2)
    • - Occipital (1)
    • - Sphenoid (1)
    • - Ethmoid (1)
  9. List the that bones that make up the facial bones:
    • - Nasal (2)
    • - Maxillae (2)
    • - Zygomatic (2)
    • - Mandible (1)
    • - Lacrimal (2)
    • - Palatine(2)
    • - Inferior nasal conchae (2)
    • - Vomer (1)
  10. The frontal bone contains:
    - Forehead

    - Eye socket (superior part)

    - Also forms much of the anterior floor of the cranial cavity
  11. The parietal bone contains:
    - Form much of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity

    - Sagittal suture joins the two parietal bones

    - Lambdoid suture separates the parietal and occipital
  12. The temporal bones contains:
    - Form the inferior lateral part of the cranial floor plus part of the lateral wall near the ear

    - Zygomatic arch

    - Internal auditory meatus- ear canal

    - Mastoid process

    - Styloid process

    - The petrous

    - Carotid foremen and jugular foremen
  13. Houses the area for your hearing and equilibrium
    The petrous
  14. Zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the Zygomatic bone make up the _______.
    Zygomatic arch
  15. The occipital bone contains:
    - Forms much of the posterior wall, and the posterior floor, of the cranial cavity

    • - Prominent surface feature include:
    • o Foremen Magnum
    • o Occipital condyles
    • o External Occipital protuberance

    - Ligamentum nuchae
  16. - Found on the prominent surface of the occipital bone
    - Largest foremen in the body, spinal cord goes through it
    Foremen Magnum
  17. -Found on the prominent surface of the occipital bone
    -Articulate with the 1st cervical vertebra
    Occipital condyles
  18. -Found on the prominent surface of the occipital bone
    External Occipital protuberance
  19. -Found on the occipital bone
    -Thin strip of tissue that muscles and tendons attach to on the back of your head
    Ligamentum nuchae
  20. -Cranial bone
    -Articulates with all other cranial bones, providing considerable stability to the skull
    -Has a complex shape resembling a bat
    Sphenoid bone
  21. 3 prominent features of the spenoid bone are:
    • o Optic foramen (optic nerves)
    • o Houses one of the paranasal sinuses
    • o Sella Turcica
  22. Depression within the Sphenoid bone; where the pituitary gland is located
    Sella Turcica
  23. Wings of the sphenoid bone that are more superior and larger; part of the lateral wall of the skull
    Greater wings
  24. Wings of the sphenoid bone that are part of the floor of the cranial cavity
    Lesser wings
  25. -Cranial bone
    -Uniquely shaped bone with numerous paranasal sinuses
    Ethmoid bone
  26. The ethmoid bone forms:
    • -The medial wall of the eye socket
    • -Cribiform plate
    • -Crista gali
    • -Superior and middle nasal conchae
  27. -Formed by the ethmoid bone
    -Floor of the cranial cavity
    Cribiform plate
  28. -Formed by the ethmoid bone
    -Attachment site for the falx cerebri (divides the hemispheres of the cerebrum)
    Crista gali
  29. -Formed by the ethmoid bone
    -Filters the air that we breathe before it goes to the lungs
    Superior and middle nasal conchae
  30. -These are paired bones that form the bridge of the nose
    -Form the anterior portion of the medial wall of the eye socket
    Nasal bone
  31. -A depression found in the nasal bone that goes down into the maxilla
    -Contains a Lacrimal sac (takes the tears down into the nasal area- cry or get cold, nose runs as well)
    Lacrimal groove
  32. -These are paired bones that form the anterior portion of the medial wall of the eye socket
    Lacrimal bones
  33. -These are paired bones that form the posterior edge of the hard palate, as well as portions of the eye socket and nasal cavity wall and floor
    Palatine bone
  34. -Facial bone
    -Helps to swirl and filter air before it passes into the lungs
    Inferior nasal conchae
  35. Only the ________ of the Ethmoid bone increases the surface area and gives us our sense of smell.
    Superior nasal conchae
  36. -Only one, sits on the floor of the nasal cavity
    -Perpendicular part that meets with the Ethmoid bone and forms the nasal septum
    Vomer bone
  37. -The paired maxillary bones
    -Internally, somewhat hollowed out and makes way for sinuses
  38. These bones form the prominences on the anterior face
  39. The _____ joins with the Zygomatic process to form the Zygomatic arch.
    Temporal process
  40. This arched bone forms the lower jawbone
  41. Structural features of the mandible:
    • 1. Body
    • 2. Rami (For muscle attachment)
    • 3. Angle
    • 4. Condylar process (More superior and rounded)
    • 5. Coronoid process (Inferior and pointed)
    • 6. Mandibular notch (Between the Condylar and Coronoid processes)
  42. Septum that is formed from 3 seperate components
    Nasal septum
  43. What are the three seperate components that make up the nasal septum?
    • 1. Superior part of the vomer
    • 2. Perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid
    • 3. Septal (hyaline) cartilage
  44. Usually a broken nose is damage to the ____ (can’t really do anything about it)
    Septal (hyaline) cartilage
  45. Formed by 3 cranial bones and 4 facial bones
  46. Associated with each orbit are 5 openings:
    • 1. optic foramen (canal)
    • 2. superior orbital fissure
    • 3. inferior orbital fissure
    • 4. supraorbital foramen
    • 5. lacrimal fossa
  47. -These are cavities within frontal, sphenoid, Ethmoid, and maxillary bones
    -They are lined with mucous membrane
    Paranasal sinuses
  48. What are three functions of paranasal sinuses?
    • 1. Filters and warms the air as you breathe in
    • 2. Helps the quality of your voice- helps for you to resonate
    • 3. Lightens the mass of your head
  49. What are two unique features of the skull?
    • 1. Sutures
    • 2. Fontanels
  50. What are 4 types of sutures in the skull?
    • 1. Coronal
    • 2. Sagittal
    • 3. Lambdoid
    • 4. Squamous
  51. -Suture
    -Frontal and parietal
    Coronal suture
  52. -Suture
    -Two parietal bones
    Sagittal suture
  53. -Suture
    -Parietals with occipital
    Lambdoid suture
  54. -Suture
    -Parietals with temporals
    Squamous sutures
  55. -Associate with a new born, soft spot
    -So the baby’s head can go through the birth canal
  56. Fontanels are unossified mesechymal tissue that becomes bone through _________.
    Intermembranous ossification
  57. Depressions in the skull
    Cranial Fossae
  58. 3 types of cranial fossae:
    • 1. Anterior
    • 2. Middle
    • 3. Posterior
  59. Depressions in the frontal lobes of the brain
    Anterior cranial fossae
  60. Depressions in the temporal lobes of the brain
    Middle cranial fossae
  61. Depressions in the cerebellum, pons, and the medulla oblongata
    Posterior cranial fossae
  62. -Unpaired
    -No other bone articulates with this bone- specifically for muscle attachment
    Hyoid bone
  63. The hyoid bone is suspended from the ________.
    Styloid processes
  64. The hyoid bone consists of the a horizontal, rectangular body, and paired projections called the ______ and the ________.
    Lesser horns and greater horns
  65. What are the divisions of the vertebral column?
    • 1. Cervical (7)
    • 2. Thoracic (12)
    • 3. Lumbar (5)
    • 4. Sacral (fused 5)
    • 5. Coccygeal (fused 4)
  66. Normal curves of the vertebral column include the _____ cervical and lumbar curves and the ______ of the thoracic and sacral curves.
    Convex; Concave
  67. Abnormal curves of the vertebral column are usually caused by ________.
  68. What are 3 types of abnormal curves in the vertbral column?
    • 1. Scoliosis
    • 2. Kyphosis
    • 3. Lordosis
  69. Lateral abnormality in the vertebral column
  70. -Increased thoracic curve in the vertebral column
  71. -Increased lumbar curve in the vertebral column
  72. What are 7 structures common to most vertebraes?
    • 1. Body
    • 2. Vertebral arch
    • 3. Pedicle
    • 4. Lamina
    • 5. Spinous process
    • 6. Transverse processes (2)
    • 7. Articular processes (2 superior, 2 inferior)
  73. The body of the vertebrae is seperated by _________.
    Intervertebral discs
  74. What part of the vertebra surrounds and protects the spinal cord?
    Vertebral arch
  75. What part of the vertebra protects lateral walls?
  76. What part of the vertebra protects the posterior walls?
  77. Surgery to fix a slipped disc, now use the Swiss cheese effect from the hot doctor
  78. How are the 7 cervical vertebra (C1-C7) divided up?
    • 1. C1-Atlas
    • 2. C2- Axis
    • 3. C3-C7
  79. What part of the cervical vertebra allows you to shake your head in a yes movement (up and down)?
  80. Process which inserts C2 into C1
  81. What part of the cervical vertebra allows you to move your head in a no movement (left and right)?
  82. Articulation of C1 and C2
    Atlantoaxial joint
  83. Have the most features in common of the cervical vertebrae
  84. What are some common features of C3-C7?
    • -Transverse foramen (specific to cervical vertebrae)
    • -Small body
    • -Larger vertebral foramen
    • -Bifid spinous processes