nutritionFlash4.txt

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taliajoysmith
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653
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nutritionFlash4.txt
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2009-10-31 09:58:41
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Nutrition Midterm Review (4)
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Chapter 8
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  1. 1. Water functions
    • 1. Maintain body temp (sweat)
    • 2. Medium of transportation
    • 3. Circulates nutrients
    • 4. Helps eliminate waste
    • 5. Participates in chemical reactions
    • 6. Lubricant/cushion for joints
    • 7. 60% of body weight
    • 8. Major solvent
    • 9. Maintains balance, prevents dehydration
    • 10. Helps excrete salt to prevent bloating
    • 11. Water weight can change overnight
    • 12. Elderly need it constantly
  2. 2. Dehydration
    • 1. Thirst occurs after you are already too dehydrated
    • 2. Dehydration can cause headache, fatigue, confusion
  3. 3. Tap water
    • 1. Hard water has Ca and Mg
    • 2. Soft water has Na
  4. 4. Major minerals
    • Present in the body in>5 grams
    • Calcium
    • Potassium
    • Phosphorus
    • Sulfate
    • Sodium
    • Chloride
    • Magnesium
  5. 5. Minor minerals (trace minerals)
    • Present in the body in <5 grams
    • Iron
    • Iodine
    • Selenium
    • Zinc
    • Chromium
    • Fluoride
    • Copper
  6. 6. Calcium food sources
    • Dairy
    • Leafy greens
    • Broccoli
    • Tofu
    • Fortified soy milk
    • Sardines
    • Salmon with bones
  7. 7. Calcium functions
    • 1. Most present mineral in body
    • 2. Helps prevent colon cancer
    • 3. Essential to bone formation
    • 4. 99% of calcium in bones
    • 5. 1% of calcium is in the body fluids
  8. 8. Osteoporosis
    Calcium deficiency in adults: hereditary, age, post-menopausal women, lack of exercise, smoking, alcohol, high animal protein diet
  9. 9. Calcium toxicity
    Constipation, urinary tract stones, interferes with absorption of other minerals
  10. 10. Phosphorus food sources
    • Cottage cheese
    • Salmon
    • Navy beans
    • Milk
  11. 11. Phosphorus functions
    • 1. Essential to bone/teeth formation
    • 2. Allows nutrients in/out phospholipid bilayer
    • 3. ATP
    • 4. DNA/RNA
    • 5. Buffer system: acid-base balance
  12. 12. Phosphorus deficiency
    • Weak
    • Impaired growth
    • Bone pain
  13. 13. Phosphorus toxicity
    Calcification of non-bone tissues
  14. 14. The electrolytes
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
    • Electrically charged particles
  15. 15. Electrolyte functions
    • 1. Balances: fluid, acid-base, buffer (maintains pH)
    • 2. Transmission of nerve impulses
    • 3. Muscle contraction
  16. 16. Sodium food sources
    • Processed food
    • Frozen dinners
    • Cheese
    • Bread
    • Canned foods
    • Soy sauce
    • Pickles
    • Salad dressings
  17. 17. Potassium food sources
    • Baked potatoes
    • Oranges
    • Whole foods
    • Avocado
    • Lima beans
    • Bananas
  18. 18. Table salt
    Sodium + chloride
  19. 19. Magnesium food sources
    • Spinach
    • Black beans
    • Soy milk
    • Yogurt
    • Broccoli
    • Nuts
    • Chocolate
  20. 20. Magnesium functions
    • 1. Affects metabolism of calcium and vitamin D
    • 2. Helps muscles relax
    • 3. Easily lost through processing
    • 4. Mostly stays in body in the bones
    • 5. Used in some laxatives
  21. 21. Sulfate
    • 1. Oxidized form of sulfer in food and water
    • 2. Helps with bodys protein structure, such as hair, skin, and nails
  22. 22. Iron food sources
    • Swiss chard
    • Enriched breads
    • Meat
    • Beans
    • Fish
  23. 23. Iron functions
    • 1. Not well absorbed
    • 2. Part of hemoglobin
    • 3. Part of myoglobin
    • 4. Works with enzymes in energy pathway
    • 5. Used to make new cells
    • 6. Liver takes in iron released from marrow and puts new RBCs into blood stream
  24. 24. Iron deficiency anemia
    • 1. RBCs deliver less oxygen to tissues so RBCs will be small and light in color
    • 2. Tired, cold, cant concentrate, pica
  25. 25. Iron toxicity
    Toxic in large amounts
  26. 26. Iodine food sources
    • Fortified table salt
    • Seafood
    • Seaweed
  27. 27. Iodine functions
    Part of thyroxine, regulating basal metabolic rate
  28. 28. Goiter
    Iodine deficiency, enlarged thyroid (sluggish, weight gain, can cause fetal death, retardation)
  29. 29. Selenium food sources
    • Seafood
    • Grains
    • Some vegetables
    • Brazil nuts
  30. 30. Selenium functions
    • 1. Antioxidant
    • 2. Works w/vitamin E
    • 3. Helps activate thyroid hormone
    • 4. Adequate prevents prostate cancer, not in excess
  31. 31. Heart disease
    Selenium deficiency
  32. 32. Zinc food sources
    • Oysters
    • Shrimp
    • Yogurt
    • Enriched cereal
    • Meats
  33. 33. Zinc functions
    • 1. Wound healing and immune system
    • 2. Makes heme in hemoglobin
    • 3. Assists pancreas, part of insulin
    • 4. Helps metabolize carbs, protein, and fat
    • 5. Helps release of vitamin A from liver
    • 6. Important in wound healing, sperm production, fetal development, development in children
  34. 34. Zinc deficiency
    Diminished taste, immunity, night vision, causes diarrhea, diminishes thyroid function, slows metabolism
  35. 35. Chromium food sources
    • Unrefined foods
    • Whole grains
    • Liver
    • Nuts cheese
  36. 36. Chromium functions
    • 1. Works with insulin to control blood glucose
    • 2. Usually plentiful in diet with unrefined healthy foods
    • 3. Lacking in a lot of refined products and often with diabetes
  37. 37. Chromium deficiency
    Can cause high blood glucose
  38. 38. Chromium toxicity
    Skin eruptions, possibly carcinogenic
  39. 39. Fluoride source
    Water
  40. 40. Fluoride functions
    • 1. Helps to prevent dental caries
    • 2. Most important to have during childhood
  41. 41. Fluoride toxicity
    Causes discoloration if teeth
  42. 42. Copper food sources
    • Organ meats
    • Seafood
    • Nuts
    • Seeds
  43. 43. Copper functions
    • 1. Helps form hemoglobin and collagen
    • 2. Helps handle oxygen
  44. 44. Copper deficiency
    Present in very malnourished infants, can slow growth and metabolism, in adults can decrease immunity and blood flow
  45. 45. Calcium DRI
    1000 mg/day (1200 if>50)
  46. 46. Iron DRI
    8 mg/day (11 for males 14-18, 15 for females 14-18, 18 for females 19-50)

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