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A pathway for making glucose from noncarbohydrate sources
Why humans need gluconeogenesis
- to convert lactic acid made in muscle and other cells back into glucose (liver does 90% of this
- conversion, kidney 10%)
- to make glucose for brain when carbohydrates are not readily available, eg. when diet is low in carbohydrate (brain uses glucose as main energy
- to make glucose and other sugars for glycoproteins
Where does gluconeogenesis take place
- 90% in the liver
- 10% in the kidney
Name the 4 enzymes that are unique in gluconeogenesis and why they're so special
- These enzymes are unique because they overcome 3 glycolytic reactions and have strong negative delta G values
- Pyruvate carboxylase/PEP carboxykinase = these two combined convert pyruvate to PEP through and OAA intermediate
- Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate = reverses PFK
- Glucose-6-phosphate = reverses hexokinase
Biotin's role in gluconeogenesis
Biotin is used as a cofactor to aid in the transfer of CO2 groups to target various molecules.
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