Volume 4 Chapter 7

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Volume 4 Chapter 7
2011-02-12 17:20:51
Volume Chapter

Volume 4 Chapter 7
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  1. Functions of the Skeleton
    • Gives the body structural form
    • Protects vital organs
    • Allows for efficient movement
    • Stores salts and other minerals
    • Produces red blood cells
  2. Haversian Canals
    Small perforations along the long bones through which blood vessels and nerves travel through the bone itself
  3. Osteocyte
    Bone-forming cell found in the bone matrix that helps maintain the bone
  4. Osteoblast
    Cell that helps in creation of new bone during growth and bone repair
  5. Osteoclast
    Bone cell that absorbs and removes excess bone
  6. Perforating Canals
    Structures through which blood vessels enter and exit the bone shaft
  7. Devascularization
    Loss of blood vessels from a body part
  8. Diaphysis
    Hollow shaft found in long bones
  9. Epiphysis
    End of a long bone, including the epiphyseal plate and supporting structure underlying the joint
  10. Cancellous Bone
    Having a lattice-work structure as in the spongy tissue of bone
  11. Articular Surface
    Surface of a bone that moves against another bone
  12. Metaphysis
    Growth zone of a bone. Active during the development stages of youth. It is located between the epiphysis and diaphysis.
  13. Epiphyseal Plate
    Area of the metaphysis where carilage is generated during growth in childhood. Also called growth plate
  14. Medullary Canal
    Cavity within a bone that contains marrow
  15. Yellow Bone Marrow
    Tissue that stores fat in a semiliquid form within the internal cavities of the bone
  16. Red Bone Marrow
    Tissue within the internal cavity of a bone responsible for the manufacture of erythrocytes and other blood cells.
  17. Periosteum
    The tough exterior bone covering
  18. Cartilage
    Connective tissue providing the articular surfaces of the skeletal system
  19. Sesamoid Bone
    Bone that forms in a tendon
  20. Joint
    Area where adjacent bones articulate
  21. Types of Joints
    • Synarthroses-immovable
    • Amphiarthroses-very limited movement
    • Diathroses (synovial)- free movement
    • -Monaxial
    • -Biaxial
    • -Triaxial
  22. Synarthroses
    Examples: skull, jaw and teeth
  23. Amphiarthroses
    Examples: vertebrae, sacrum and ilium
  24. Diarthroses
    • Monaxial-
    • -Hindge joints-knees, elbows, fingers
    • -Pivot joints- cervical spine and head. atlas and axis

    • Biaxial-
    • -Condyloid-gliding joints-carpals, clavicle/sternum
    • -Ellipsodial-wrist and metacarpals
    • -Saddle-base of thumbs

    • Triaxial-
    • -Ball and socket-hip and shoulder
  25. Adduction
    Movement of a body part toward midline
  26. Abduction
    Movement of body part away from midline
  27. Circumduction
    Movement at a synovial joint where the distal end of a bone describes a circle but the shaft does not rotate
  28. Ligaments
    Bands of connective tissue that connect bone to bone and hold joints together
  29. Synovial Fluid
    Substance that lubricates joints
  30. Bursa
    Sac containing synovial fluid that cushions adjacent structures
  31. Axial Skeleton
    Bones of the head, thorax and spine
  32. Appendicular Skeleton
    Bones of the extremities, shoulder, girdle, pelvis
  33. Scapula
    Traiangular bone buried within the musculature of the upper back
  34. Clavicle
    Bone that holds the scapular and shoulder joint at a fixed distance from the sternum and permits the shoulder to move up and down
  35. Humerus
    Single bone of the proximal upper extremities
  36. Radius
    Bone on the thumb side of the forearm
  37. Ulna
    Bone on the little finger side of the forearm
  38. Olecranon
    Proximal end of the ulna
  39. Carpal Bones
    Bones of the wrist
  40. Metacarpals
    Bones of the palm
  41. Phalanges
    Bones of the fingers
  42. Pelvis
    Skeletal structure where the lower extremities attach to the body
  43. Innominate
    One of the structures of the pelvis (pelvic wings including the ilium, ischium and pubis)
  44. Ilium
    Large flat innominate bone
  45. Ischium
    Irregular innominate bone
  46. Pubis
    Irregular innominate bone
  47. Iliac Crest
    Lateral bony ridge that is a landmark of the pelvis
  48. Ischial Tuberosity
    One of the bony knobs of the posterior pelvis
  49. Acetabulum
    Hollow depression in the lateral pelvis that forms the articular surface for the femoral head
  50. Femur
    Large bone of the proximal lower extremity
  51. Tibia
    The larger bone of the lower leg that articulates with the femur
  52. Fibula
    The small bone of the lower leg
  53. Malleolus
    The protuberance of the ankle (medial and lateral)
  54. Calcaneus
    The largest bone of the foot, heel.
  55. Metatarsal
    One of the bones forming the arch of the foot
  56. Types of Muscle
    • Smooth-autonomic, blood vessels, digestion
    • Cardiac-heart muscle
    • Skeletal- voluntary, striated
  57. Fasciculus
    Small bundle of muscle fibers
  58. Origin
    Attachment of a muscle to a bone that does not move or experiences the least motion with muscle contraction
  59. Insertion
    Attachment of the muscle to the bone that moves with contraction
  60. Opposition
    Pairing of muscles that permits extension and flexion of the limbs
  61. Tendons
    Bands of connective tissue that connect muscle to bone
  62. Tone
    State of slight contraction of muscles that gives them firmness and keeps them ready to contract
  63. Types of Muscular Injury
    • Contusion- rupture of blood vessels in muscle causing accumulation of blood
    • Compartment syndrome- buildup of pressure from fluid accumulation within the fasciae
    • Penetrating injury- foreign objects penetrating muscle tissue
    • Muscle fatigue- muscles reach their limit of performance through depletion of nutrients and accumulation of toxins
    • Muscle cramp- muscle pain resulting from lack of oxygen and accumulation of waste
    • Muscle spasm- interrmitent or continuous contraction of a muscle
    • Muscle strain- injury resulting from overstretching of muscle fibers
  64. Types of Joint Injury
    • Sprain
    • Subluxation
    • Dislocation
  65. Sprain
    Tearing of a joint capsule's connective tissue

    • Grade I- minor and incomplete tear, painful, minimal swelling, stable joint
    • Grade II- significant but incomplete tear, moderate to severe pain, swealling, joint intact but unstable
    • Grade III- complete tear, severe pain and spasm, joint unstable
  66. Subluxation
    Partial displacement of a bone end from its position in a joint capsule
  67. Dislocation
    Complete displacement of a bone end from its position in a joint capsule
  68. Closed Fracture
    A broken bone in which the bone ends or the forces that caused it do not penetrate the skin
  69. Open Fracture
    A broken bone in which the bone ends or the forces that caused it penetrate the skin
  70. Hairline Fracture
    Small crack in a bone that does not disrupt its total structure
  71. Impacted Fracture
    Break in a bone in which the bone is compressed on itself. Bone remains in position and retains some strength
  72. Transverse Fracture
    A break that runs across a bone perpendicular to the bone's orientation
  73. Oblique Fracture
    Break in a bone running across it at an angle other than 90 degrees
  74. Comminuted Fracture
    Fracture in which the bone is broken into several pieces
  75. Spiral Fracture
    A curving break in a bone as may be caused by rotational forces
  76. Fatigue Fracture
    Break in a bone associated with prolonged or repeated stress
  77. Greenstick Fracture
    Partial fracture of a child's bone. Only disrupts on side of the long bone and remains angulated. Interrupts healing and causes bone to end up misshapen
  78. Epiphyseal Fracture
    Disruption of the epiphyseal (growth) plate of a child's bone
  79. Osteoporosis
    Weakening of the bone tissue due to loss of essential minerals, especially calcium
  80. Pathological Fractures
    Result from a disease process which disrupts bone tissue
  81. Callus
    Thickened area that forms at the site of the fracture as part of a repair process
  82. Bursitis
    Acute or chronic inflammation of the small synovial sacks, bursa
  83. Tendonitis
    Inflammation of a tendon and/or its protective sheath
  84. Arthritis
    Inflammation of the joint
  85. Osteoarthritis
    Inflammation of a joint resulting from wearing of the articular cartilage
  86. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Chronic disease that causes deterioration of peripheral joint connective tissue
  87. Gout
    Inflammation of joints and connective tissue due to a buldup of uric acid crystals
  88. Classification of Patients with Musculoskeletal Injuries
    • -Life-and-limb threatening injuries
    • -Life-threatening injuries, minor musculoskeletal injuries
    • -Non-life-threatening injuries, serious limb threatening injures
    • -Non-life-threatening injuries, isolated minor musculosketal injuries
  89. The Six P's of Evaluating Limb Injury
    • Pain
    • Pallor
    • Parlysis
    • Paresthesia
    • Pressure
    • Pulses
  90. Early Indicators of Compartment Syndome
    • Feelings of tension within a limb
    • Loss of distal sensation (especially in webs of fingers and toes)
    • Complaints of pain
    • Condition more severe than mechanism would indicate
    • Pain on passive extension of extremity
    • Pulse deficit (late sign)
  91. Basics of Musculoskeletal Injury Care
    • Protecting open wounds
    • Proper positioning
    • Immobilizing the injury
    • Monitoring of neurovascular functioning
  92. Reduction
    Returning of displaced bone ends to their proper anatomical orientation
  93. RICE Procedure for Strains, Sprains and Soft-Tissue Injury
    • Rest the extremity
    • Ice for first 48 hours
    • Compress with elastic banadge
    • Elevate extremitity