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2010-02-09 23:14:19

test # 2 part 1
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  1. the function of the cell membrane of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is to
    regulate movemet of molecules in and out of the cell wall
  2. basfilamentous protein appendages are
  3. extra chromosomal DNA in prokaryotes is found in
  4. small channels in gram negative cell walls that permit passage of small molecules
  5. the helix and pleated sheets of amino asics within a single protein, form its
    secondary structure
  6. the sugars found in nucleic acids consist of
    5 carbon atoms
  7. the carbohydrates found in nucleic acids are
    ribose and deoxyribose
  8. if a protien molecule is exposed to an elevated temp or the solution becomes very acidic or basic the protein may bef
  9. polymers of monosaccharide subunits are termed
  10. carbohydrates are compounds contraining carbon dydrogen and oxygen in an approximate ratio of
  11. the most common disaccharides are
    lactose and sucrose
  12. the most abundant organic molecule on earth and the principle constituent of plant cell walls is
  13. what is the correct ordor of basic staining procedure
    smear, fix, stain
  14. the two magnifying lenses found in a light microscope are the
    ocular and objective
  15. the resolving power of a microscope is described as the ability of the microscope to
    seperate clearly two objects that are very close together
  16. what are the differential stains
    • acid fast stain
    • gram stain
  17. the macromolecule found in the cel walls of all bacteria is
  18. the cell wall of gram positive bacteria
    contains a thick layer of peptidoglycan
  19. the cell wall of gram negative organisms
    • has a thin peptidoglycan layer
    • is characterized by an outer membrane containing LPS
  20. which may resulet in gram positive bacteria appearing to be gram negative
    • decolorizing too long
    • using old cultures
  21. a dormant cell type
  22. a measure of sydrogen ion concentration
  23. charged ions termed as
  24. if electrons shared unequally, they form a
    polor bond
  25. the process of joining subunits to form a macromolecule involes the chemical reaction
    dehydration synthesis
  26. the microscope most commonly used for observing liveing microorganisms is the
    phase conras microscope
  27. how are organisms to be stained, fixed to the glass slide
  28. stains which have strong attraction for cell components and stain them on the microscope slide are
    basic stain
  29. ribosomes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are responsible for
    protien synthesis
  30. the DNA of a typical bacterium is arranged as an
    double stranded circular molecule
  31. is penicillin an extremely effective antibiotic to gram negative baceria
  32. the process of joining subunits to form a macromolecule involves the chemical reaction
    dehydration synthesis
  33. which of the following microscopes can be used for viewing treponema pallidum
  34. stains which have a stong atrraction for cell components and stain them on the microscope slide are
    basic stains
  35. the purines of DNA acid are
    adenine and guanine
  36. the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is
    atomic number
  37. what do amino acids consist of
    • an amino group (NH2)
    • a side chain (R group)
    • a caboxyl group (COOH)
  38. what kind of bond is formed between the Oxygen and hydrogen atoms i a water molecule
    polar covalent bond
  39. what kind of bond is formed between the oxgen of one water molecule and the hydrogen of an adjacent water molecule
    hydrogen bond
  40. DNA differ from RNA in that dna has
    • two strands
    • deoxyribose
    • thymine
  41. carbon atoms covalently bonded to another carbon or hyrogen atom are termed
  42. what type of bonding is responsible for holding the two strands of dna together
  43. what elements make up 99.5% of living mater
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • phosphorus
    • nitrogen
    • sulfer
    • chopns *not sulfer
  44. macromolecules formed by the joining together of the same small molecules are termed
  45. the subunits fo proteins are
    amino acids
  46. two or more molecule held together by a chemical bonds are termed
  47. bonds which are formed when atoms share electrons
  48. basic dyes have
    positive charges
  49. organisms which absorb crystal violet iodine and are not easily decolorized by alcohol are
    gram positive
  50. if electros are gained or lost in the formation of a bond the bond is termed
  51. the most important molecule in the cell comprising 70% of all living organisms
  52. the order of reagents in the gram stain reaction
    crystal violet, iodine, alcohol, safranin
  53. the acid fast stain technique stains organisms that do not take up stain readily such as
  54. gram positive bacteria stain
  55. fats are a combination of
    glycerol and fatty acids
  56. phospholipids are commonly referred to as
    compound lipid
  57. how many elements
    • aproximently 110
    • 92 naturally occuring
  58. what is the atomic weight
    sum of protons and nutrons
  59. positivly charged ions
  60. negatively charged ions
  61. activites ofprotein s include
    • catalyzing reactions
    • being a component of cell structrures
    • moving cells
    • taking nutrients into the cell
    • turning genes off
    • being a part of cell membranes
  62. degradation of macromolecules occures by
  63. 4 classes of macromolecules
    • proteins
    • polysaccarides
    • nucleic acids
    • lipids