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What are the 4 parts to the
WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
- 1.) Phases
- 2.) Major Project Deliverables & Milestones
- 3.) Activites
- 4.) Tasks
What are the guidelines for working with milestones in correlation to Time Management
- 1.) Define milestones early in the project and include them in the PERT and Gantt charts to provide visual guides
- 2.) Keep milestones small and frequent
- 3.) Make each milestone binary - meaning it is either complete or incomplete
- 4.) Carefully monitor the criticalpath
What are the 3 tools to describe the project tasks and schedule
- 1.) WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
- 2.) PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
- 3.) GANTT Charts (derived from the PERT chart)
What can Project Management consist of
- Scope management (WBS table)
- Time management (PERT chart, Gantt chart)
- Cost management
- Quality management
- Human resource management (Hours Chart)
- Communications management
- Risk management (Risk Map)
- Procurement management
- Integration management
- Program Evaluation and Review Technique
- First developed in the 1950s by the Navy to help manage very large, complex projects with a high degree of inter-task dependency.
Classical PERT charting is used to support projects that are often completed using an assembly line approach.
- Good at showing precedence
- Can Show Critical Paths (connecting critical tasks)
- MS Project can create a PERT chart from a Gantt chart.
- Named after Henry Gantt (1861-1919)
- Around since 1st World War (1903).
- Most Common graphical representation of plans.
- Can show critical path.
- Not great at showing precedence.
- Easy for novices to construct and interpret.
- Gantt charts are available in MS-Project or you can program one in Excel
“Organizing and directing people to achieve a planned result within budget and on schedule”
- Success or failure of project depends on skills of the project manager
- At the beginning of project: plan and organize
- During project: monitor and control
- At the end of project: communicate results, reward contributors and follow-up
Proceduresfor Project Success
- Thorough and detailed project plans, realistic work schedules and milestones
- Progress reports, progress control, communication of results
- Rewards and recognition given to those who have contributed.
- Adoption of Innovative ideas that will invigorate the project and attract other researchers and research clients
Resources for Project Success
- Effective Leadership
- Experienced, devoted research team with common individual research goals and priorities
- Clear definitions, common conceptualization of problem and research applications
- Financial support and encouragement from clients and partners.
Alternative Data Collection Methods
- 1.) Focus Groups
- 2.) The Survey Method
- 3.) Obervational Method
- 4.) Experimental Method
Form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their attitudes.
Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members.
- Useful prior to, during, and after programs, events,
- or experiences.
The Survey Method
A sample of persons is asked a structured set of questions to collect data for analysis or testing.
Conducted by personal interviews, mail, Internet, Email or telephone techniques.
Most frequently used method.
Direct observation of physical phenomena.
Tends to be accurate and can record consumer behavior, but more costly than survey method and not possible to employ in many cases
gathering primary data by setting up a test, a model, or an experiment to simulate the real world holding all except key variables constant.
Hard to use in tourism research
Phase II: Scientific Research Method
- Develop Formal Research Design
- (deductionof specific relationship to be tested)
- Collect Primary Data
- (It might be expensive to collect but will provide the best information for testing the relationship of interest.)
- Analyze and Interpret the Data
- (Testing specific relationships and generalizing)
- used “ idea” for anything we find in our mind.
- But he argued that all ideas come, originally from outside our minds, from our experiences.
Such as visiting a place… and reading what other people wrote… and listening to what other people say … and looking at data in different ways.
The Problem Scope
- 1.) Identify the Problem
- 2.) Conduct the Situation Analysis
- 3.) Conduct Information Investiagtion
Develop Formal Research Design
Collect Primary Data
a. Survey Instrument
b. Collection Method
c. Targeting Populations and selecting Samples
d. Survey Logistics
Analyze and Interpret the Data
a. Descriptive Statistics
b. Hypothesis testing
c. Relationships between variables