Hormones Chapter 17

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Hormones Chapter 17
2011-02-17 13:20:34

Specific glands and their hormones chapter 17
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  1. Growth Hormone or ___________

    • GH or somatotropin
    • targets: especially bones and muscle mass (tells you to make bigger bones and muslces)
  2. Growth homone function
    • Anabolic (build) hormome: promotes protein synthesis
    • stimulates chondrocytes (make cartilage) and osteoblasts
    • encourage release of fat from liver for use as energy
    • causes: release of somatomedins (in the liver, do most of the work)
    • ex. insulin- like IGF
    • Enhances effects of GH (GH lasts 20 minutes/ IGF lasts 20 hours)
  3. Regulation of Growth Hormones
    • controlled by hypothalamus
    • hypothalamus stimulates release of GH from pituitary by sending GHRH through portal system (take something from one spot to another w/o going through the liver)
    • Hypothalamus stops release of GH by sending somatostatin
  4. Dwarfism:
    • Dwarfism: too little GH while growing
    • Giantism:too much GH while growing
    • Acromegaly: too much as adult
  5. What happens to growth hormones as we age?
    Normal human aging: levels decline as you get older
  6. thyroid stimulating hormone or ________
    TSH or thyrotropin
  7. Target and function of TSH
    • target: thyroid
    • function: stimulates thyroid to release thyroxin
  8. Regulation of TSH
    • regulated by the hypothalamus
    • -hypothalamus reads the thyroxin levels
    • -sends TRH to stimulate pituitary
    • -pituitary releases TSH (into the blood stream and goes to the thyroid)
  9. What is insulin like growth factor?
    made by the liver; anabolic hormone and it wants to increase protein synthesis
  10. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • target: adrenal cortex
    • function: stimulate the release of glucocorticords (which influence BS levels)
    • regulation:hypothalamus sends CRH to the anterior pituitary to stimulate release
  11. What's another name for the posterior pituitary and why is it called this?
    neurohypophysis- it is an extension of the hypothalamus
  12. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • target: kidneys and artery walls
    • function: decrease urine output, increase blood volume, in extremely high amounts, act as a vasoconstrictor; aka vasopressin (to increase pressure in veins)
  13. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    hypothalamus reads osmolarity of the blood and stimulates release of ADH as needed
  14. diabetes insipidus
    • ADH levels are too low
    • -over flow of tasteless urine, not sugar diabetes
    • -low ADH levels prohibit body from controlling fluid loss
    • Treatment: ADH available in nasal form
  15. Oxytocin
    • target: uterine smooth muscle and mammary glands
    • function: contraction during birth and activation of milk flow
  16. Thyroxin:T4
    • maintain normal cellular metabolism (targets the mitochondria)
    • -catabolic: increase use of fats&glucose
    • -anabolic: protein synthesis
    • thermoregulation through maintenance of BMR
    • Enhance actions of ANS esp. sympathetic
    • -increase receptors for Ne and E, BP, &HR
    • Essential for normal brain development
  17. Thyroxin: T4
    • Regulation:hypothalamus is in control
    • -hypo stimulates release of TSH from pit. by sending TRH
    • -pit. releases TSH which goes to thyroid
    • -thyroid releases thyroxin
    • Negative Feedback: presence of thyroxin can inhibit pituitary from releasing TSH
  18. Hypothyroidism:
    • myxedema
    • Sx: weight gain, tired, low BP, sluggish, cold, mentally slow
    • Tx: give thyroxin
  19. Hyperthyroidism
    • Graves disease
    • Sx: high BP, hyper, irritable, bulding eyes, weight loss, high body temp(sweating more), high HR
  20. What disease is assoicated with low ADH levels and what are the symptoms?
    • diabetes insipidus
    • putting out to much urine
  21. Calcitonin
    Function/ target:
    • function/target:regulation of Ca levels; acts to lower blood levels when too high; most important in children
    • - inhibits action of osteoclasts
    • -activates osteoblasts
  22. Calcitonin
    regulation: thyroid is detecting the Ca+ levels