Sociology Exam 2 Chapter 3
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Sociology Exam 2 Chapter 3
Sociology exam 2
All humans being learn to:
The Concept of Culture
Culture is crucial to human existence.
Humans learn how to meet their basic needs through culture.
Culture is transmitted from one generation to the next through social interaction.
4 Components of Culture
Everything human beings make and use.
Allow shumans to cope with extreme environments and survive in all climates.
Has made human beings the dominant life form on earth.
Knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for appropriate behavior.
Elements of nonmaterial culture
Language and Culture
Language makes it possible for humans to share culture.
Origin of Language
FOXP2- the human gene involved in language was discovered in 2001.
FOXP2 switches on other genes during the development of the brain
Two mechanisms of Cultural Change
New concepts, ideas, and material objects
Invention- recombining elements already available to a society
Discovering new concepts
Finding new solutions to old problems
Devising and making new material objects
The movement of ucltural traits from one culture to another
Animals and Culture
Many animals produce and use tools.
Experiments have shown that apes are able to master fundamental aspects of language.
Division of labor
Rites of passage
Families differ between cultures depending on who is allowed to marry and how many spouses are allowed
The basic family unit of husband, wife, and children is recognized in almost every culture.
Sexual relations among a family are almost universally taboo
Functions of Incest Taboo
Helps keep sexual jealousy under control
Prevents the confusion of authority relationships in the family
Ensures family offspring will marry into other families, creating a network of social bonds
Rites of Passage
Standardized rituals marking life transitions.
Functions of Rites of Passage
Help the individual achieve a social identity
Map out the individual's life course
Aid the individual in making life plans
Provide people with a context to share emotions
Beliefs and values that help groups maintain identity as a social unit
Culture and Individual Choice
Culture tells humans what to do, how to do it, and when it should be done
Humans have more individual freedom of action than any other creature
Society and culture limit choices and make it difficult to act in ways that deviate from cultural norms
Biology and Culture
Most of our body proccesses are the result of the interaction of genes and the environment.
Piaget's Stages of Development
Formal, logical thought
Birth to age 2- Infant relies on touch and the manipulation of objects for information about the world, slowly learning about cause and effect.
About age 2- Child begins to learn that words can be symbols for objects. The child cannot see the world from another person's point of view.
Age 7 to about age 12- The child begins to think with some logic and can understand numbers, shapes, and spatial relationships.
Formal, logical thought
Adolesence- People at this stage are capable of abstract, logical thought, are able to anticipate consequences of their actions.
Research suggets that not every person is capable of thinking about morality in the same way.
Kohlberg's Stages of Morality
Stage 1- Orientation toward punishment and obedience.
Stage 2- Orientation toward individualism and exchange.
Stage 3- Orientation toward good interpersonal relationsships.
Stage 4- Orientation toward maintaining the social order.
Stage 5- Orientation toward the social contract and individual rights.
Stage 6- Orientation toward universal principles.
Cooley's Looking Glass Self
The process through which we develop a sense of self.
Mead's Stages of Development
1. Preparatory stage
2. Play stage
3. Game stage
The chid imitates the behavior of others.
The child begins to formulate role expectations: Playing house, etc.
The child learns there are rules that specify the proper and correct relationship among the players.
Freud's View of the Self
Id- the drives and insticts which remain unconscious
ego- tries to mediate between the id and the superego
superego- society's norms and moral values as learned primarily from our parents
Agents of Socialization
The first introduction to socialization occurs within the family
Every family socializes its children to its own particular version of the societies culture
The families role in socialization has come to be challenged
An insitution intended to socialize children in selected skills and knowledge
More recently it has had to encompass socialization as well as academic instruction
By exposing students to a variety of ideas, teachers attempt to guide the development of the whole student
Often peer influence is greater than that of any other source of socialization
The power of the peer group is in direct proportion to the extent that the adolescent feels ignored by their parents.
Peers have the greatest say in life issues
The Mass Media
Long term childhood exposure to TV is a causal factor behind approximately 1/2 of the homicides in the US
Adolescents who watched more than one hour of TV a day (regardless of content) were four times more likely to commit aggrassive acts toward other people
Of those who watched more than three hours 28.8% were later invovled in assaults, robberies, fights, and other aggressive behavior.
Learned a language and can think logically.
Accepted the basic norms and values of the culture.
Developed the ability to pattern behavior in terms of these norms and values
Assumed a culturally approprate social identity
Factors in Effective Resocialization
Isolation from the outside world
Spending all of one's time in the same place with the same people
Shedding individual identity by giving up old clothes and possessions for standard uniforms
A clean break with the past
Loss of freedom of action
Norms and vlues make up the moral code of a culture
Behavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms of the group in question
Functions of Deviance
Causes the group's members to close ranks
Prompts the group to organize in order to limit future deviant acts
Helps clarify for the group what it really does believe in
Teaches normal behavior by providing examples of rule violation
Tolerance of deviant behavior prevents more serious instances of nonconformity
Dysfunctions of Deviance
It is a threat to the social order because it make social life unpredictable
It causes confusion about the norms and values of that society
It undermines trust
It diverts valuable resources
Informal Positive Sanctions
Spontaneous displays of approval
Formal positive sanctions
Planned public ceremonies that express social approval
Informal negative sanctions
Spontaneous displays of disapproval
Formal negative sanctions
Actions that express insitutionalized disapproval of behavior
Sheldon's Body Types
Endomorphic- round and soft
Ectomorphic- Thin and linear
Mesomorphic- ruggedly muscular
Orientations associated with Sheldon's body types
endomorphs- relaxed creatures of comfort
Ectomorphs- Inhibited, secretive, and restrained
mesomorphs- asseritive, action oriented, and uncaring of others feelings
Merton's Strain Theory
Individual's who occupy faborable positons in the class structure have legitimate ways to acieve success
Those who occupy unfaborable positions lack such means
The goal of financial success combined with the unequal access to resources creates deviance
Merton's 4 types of deviance
Accept the culturally validated goal of success but find deviant ways of reaching it
Reject the importance of success once they realize they will never achieve it
Remain within the labor force but refuse to take risks to jeopordize their job security
Pull back from society
Drug and alcohol addicts who can no longer function
Reject the goals of what to them is an unfair social order and the means of achieving them
People are free to violate norms if they lack intimate attachments
Without attachments, people can violate norms without fear of social diapproval
This theory assumes the diapproval of others plays a major role in preventing deviance
Hirschi's Four Ways to Bond to Society
1. attachment to others
2. Commitment to conformity
3. involvement in conventional activities
4. A belief in the moral validity of social rules
Theory of Differential Association
Based on the idea that criminal behavior is learned in the context of intimate groups.
Two components of learned criminal behavior
Criminal Techniques- how to break into houses
Criminal attitudes- justifications for criminal behavior
Factors that determine whether a person wil be labeled deviant
1. Importance of the norms that are violated
2. Social identity of the individual who violates them
3. Social context of the behavior in question
How to Justify Deviant Behavior
Denial of responsibility
Denying the jury
Denial of the victim
Condemnation of the authorities
Appealing to higher principles or authorities
75% of all crime in the US is a property crime
Crimes committed in the course of one's job for the purpose of personal or organizational gain.
States with death penalty statutes
35, US government, US military
States without death penalty
Total number of executions since 1976
Significance of 1976 and death penalty
The year the modern death penalty was reinstated.
Top 3 states for numbers of executions
Number one state per capita
Number of executions in OK before 1976
Number of executions since 1976
Year of first execution after reenactment
State that is #1 for female incarceration rates
Number of innocent people freed from death row in OK
Method of Execution
Electrocution and firing squad as back-up