CRJ110 #1

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kworhach22
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CRJ110 #1
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2011-02-09 21:53:54
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CRJ110 #1
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  1. in place of a parent deemed unable or unworthy
    In loco parentis
  2. origins of organized crime in the united states
    Mafia started it in the United States in the 1870s. But the origin is in Sicily from centuries (1200s).
  3. panel of sixteen to twenty-three citizens who screen the prosecution’s evidence, in secret hearings, decide whether someone should be formally charged with a crime.
    grand jury
  4. a jury of 12 to determine the facts and decide the issue in civil or criminal proceedings.
    petit jury
  5. killing of several victims over a period of time.
    serial killers
  6. at common law, the nighttime breaking and entering of the dwelling house of another, with the intention to commit a felony or larceny therein; a felony.
    burglary
  7. the taking of the property of another, or out of his or her presence, by means of force and violence or the threat thereof.
    robbery
  8. case in which there is evidence that would warrant the conviction of the defendant unless otherwise contradicted; a case that meets evidentiary requirements for grand jury indictment.
    Prima facie
  9. women and criminality
    75%/25%. Female crime on the rise because they now have jobs as opposed to being at home.
  10. criminal act committed by one or more employees of a corporation that is subsequently attributed to the organization itself.
    corporate crime
  11. the conversion (misappropriation) of property or money with which one is entrusted or for which one has fiduciary responsibility.
    embezzlement
  12. acquisition of the property of another through deception.
    fraud
  13. origin of juvenile courts
    Chicago in 1899
  14. a violation of the law committed by a person or group of persons in the course of an otherwise respected and legitimate occupation or business enterprise.
    white-collar crime
  15. Congress passed this law in 1890 to prohibit any contract, conspiracy, or combination of business interests in restraint of foreign or interstate trade. (Limited the exercise of monopolies.)
    Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  16. Uniform Crime Report
    • Issued by the FBI. Voluntary annual report of 16,000 police agencies.
    • Part One: (violent crimes [index] but not arson)
    • Part Two: (fraud, weapons)
  17. Victimization Survey
    completed in cooperation with Census Bureau and the Department of Justice. Phone survey of 50,000 people every 6 months. Reveals crimes that were not reported to police and why they weren’t reported.
  18. all state courts in the country must apply the exclusionary rule as a matter of constitutional law.
    Mapp vs. Ohio (1961)
  19. In re Gault (1967)
    • Established juvenile rights:
    • 1.) right to receive adequate and timely notice of charges
    • 2.) right to counsel
    • 3.) right to be confronted by and to examie witnesses
    • 4.) privilege against self-incrimination (Read page 28)
  20. beyond reasonable doubt, preponderance of the evidence, probably cause, reasonable suspicion
    Standards of Proof
  21. FBI Index Offenses
    everything violent except arson
  22. Murder
    • 1st degree- killing done with premeditation and deliberation or, by statute, in the presence of other aggravating circumstances.
    • 2nd degree- killing done with intent to cause death but without premeditation and deliberation.
  23. one human causing the death of another.
    homicide
  24. manslaughter
    • voluntary- intentional but without malice (passion crime)
    • Involuntary- reckless (DUI)
  25. a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages; "in 1920 the 18th amendment to the Constitution established prohibition in the US"
    prohibition
  26. use of material nonpublic financial information about securities to obtain unfair advantage.
    insider trading
  27. use or threat of violence against people/government to punish them for past action or bring change of policy.
    terrorism
  28. set of facts that would induce a reasonable person to believe that the accused committed the offense in question; the minimum evidence requirement for an arrest, according to the Fourth Amendment.
    probable cause
  29. accusation against a criminal defendant prepared by a prosecuting attorney.
    information
  30. accusation against a criminal defendant rendered by a grand jury on the basis of evidence constituting a prima facie case.
    indictment
  31. International crime defined by convention (1948) and consisting of specific acts of violence committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, cultural, or religious group.
    genocide
  32. voluntary manslaughter
    "heat of passion" crime
  33. money gained from IGG (ill got gains) must be “washed” (made legit).
    money laundering
  34. Miranda vs. Arizona (1967)
    the court placed the burden on the police to warn arrestees and those in custody of their Fifth Amendment (right to remain silent) and their sixth Amendment (right to have counsel appointed).
  35. according to the 14th amendment, a fundamental mandate that a person should not be deprived of life, liberty, or property without reasonable lawful procedures.
    due process revolution
  36. characterized the criminal justice system as an orderly process comprising five interrelated phases with four paths.
    president's commission (1967)
  37. serving a sentence in the community in lieu of a prison term, on condition of good conduct, compliance with conditions, and under supervision.
    probation
  38. release of a prisoner into the community during the last part of a prison term, on promise of good conduct and under supervision.
    parole
  39. parent of the country; assumption by the state of the role of guardian over children whose parents are deemed incapable or unworthy.
    Parens Patriae
  40. book by Herbert Packer in which he indentifies the methods by which the criminal justice system seeks to achieve its goals: the due process model and the crime control model.
    Limits of the Criminal Sanction
  41. the Supreme Court mandated that every criminal defendant in whatever court- is entitled to the assistance of counsel (legal advice).
    Gideon vs. Wainwright (1963)
  42. conduct a nationwide study of prevailing conditions in the administration of justice. Found there was little justice, there wasn’t even a system and most of those running the various agencies were untrained.
    wickersham commission
  43. Prisoners often seek release by filing a petition for a writ of habeas corpus. A writ of habeas corpus is a judicial mandate to a prison official ordering that an inmate be brought to the court so it can be determined whether or not that person is imprisoned lawfully and whether or not he should be released from custody.
    habeus corpus
  44. finding inadmissible evidence that is illegally obtained.
    exclusionary rule
  45. requires strict adherence to the Constitution. Focus is on the accused and his or her rights and also on providing some balance to the power and authority of the state. Due process protections under the Constitution force the state to fulfill its burden of proving its case against the accused.
    due process model
  46. focuses on the efficiency and effectiveness of the process. Exists to investigate crimes, screen suspects, detain dangerous defendants and secure convictions of guilty parties.
    crime control model

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