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- a structure specialized to detect a stimulus.
- May be a free nerve ending.
- nerve ending + connective Tissue (C.T.), epithelial T., or muscle T.
- Examples: eye, ear, skin.
Sensory transduction –
converting ENERGY into INFORMATION.
refers to the type of stimulus or the sensation it produces.
Nervous system can distinguish between touch to finger and touch to toe.
Receptive Field –
body area that a sensory neuron receives input from.
Encoded in three ways: frequency, number of fibers and type of fibers.
Encoded in way nerve fibers change their firing frequencies over time.
burst of electrical activity when stimulus first applied or removed; adapts quickly - stops firing.
(e.g. tactile, smell and hair receptors)
Tonic Receptor –
adapt slowly, generate electrical impulses continuously.
- all receptors adapt eventually, if stimulus is prolonged.
- Firing frequency and conscious perception decline.
- Example: HOT bath.
Example: Taste, smell, blood
heat fluxes (loss/gain) receptors
Example: Warm receptors and cold receptors.
- pain receptors; allow awareness of tissue injuries
- found in all tissues except the brain
Example: mechanical pain; chemical pain
Example: pressure, stretch
Photons (light waves)
Example: rods/cones in retina of eye
internal stimulus, inside body
Example: visceral pain receptors
position of limbs in space
Example: Joints, tendons
external stimulus, outside of body
Example: Skin receptors
An initial response of a receptor cell to a stimulus, consisting of a change in voltage across the receptor membrane proportional to the stimulus strength. The intensity of the receptor potential determines the frequency of action potentials traveling to the nervous system.
have spots on skin that are specifically mediated.