Artic Review Questions

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Artic Review Questions
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2011-02-09 22:49:03
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Artic Review Questions
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  1. Distinctive feature with no or little marked constriction of the vocal tract.
    Vocalic
  2. Distinctive feature where airstream is unrestricted.
    Sonorant
  3. Distinctive feature where airstream is being forced through a small opening resulting in intense noise.
    Strident
  4. Distinctive feature where there is an incomplete constriction but the flow of air is not stopped.
    Continuant
  5. Infant vocal productions in which a series of CVCV syllables are repeated (ma-ma-ma-ma or ba-ba-ba); such productions begin at about 7 months of age.
    Reduplicated/Variegated babbling
  6. Infant vocal production that typically begins at about 9 months of age; characterized by the production of VCV or CVC syllable combinations, with varying consonants and vowels from one syllable to another. (ma-be-boo)
    Non-Reduplicated/Variegated Babbling
  7. In speech/language development, verbal behavior by young children that begins at about 10 months old out of the variegated babbling stage; productions are characterized by strings of sounds and syllables with a variety of stress and intonational patterns. Sounds like sentences with adult intonation, but not actual words and often overlaps with the early period of meaningful speech.
    Jargon (also called Conversational/Modulated babbling)--this is in STAGE 5
  8. Later babbling is good for communication and to a baby is meaningful but what purpose does early babbling serve?
    Self-stimulation
  9. What places of articulation are present in early babbling?
    Bilabial and Alveolor
  10. Total or partial repetition of a syllable from a target word is called?
    Reduplication
  11. A syllable structure process where an addition of /i/ or consonant+ /i/ to the word (Doggie or bookie)
    Diminutization (Dim)
  12. A syllable structure process where there is an insertion of an unstressed vowel, usually a schwa between 2 consonants or after a final voiced stop.
    Epenthesis
  13. Phonological process where the effect one speech sound has on another when produced in close sequence, such that one sound changes to become more like another
    ASSIMILATION (Progressive/Regressive)
  14. An assimilation process that affect manner or place of articulation.
    Consonant Harmony
  15. Phonetic variation by lengthening a vowel into a dipthong with no change in meaning. Diphthongs that don't contrast meaning in words when they are interchanged with their pure-vowel counterpart; the only 2 American examples are /ei/ and /ou/.
    Non-Contrastive (Non-Phonemic) Diphthongs
  16. When the vocal tract changes because of the sound that comes before it or after it. In articulation, the process by which sounds are affected by or take on the properties of the surrounding sounds. The perceptual property of the sound may be unaffected.
    Adaptation
  17. Words that children continue to mispronounce despite the development of a more advanced phonological system; such words are likely related to names of familiar people or pets.
    Frozen (Regressive) Words
  18. Rules for how sounds can be combined to form syllables and how those sounds can be distributed.
    Phonotactics
  19. Rules governing the production of sound in morphemes.
    Morphophonemics
  20. Stops, Fricatives, and Affricates are all ___________.
    Obstruents
  21. Acquisition of Distinctive Features where sounds are produced at the FRONTof the mouth.
    Grave
  22. Acquisition of Distinctive Features where sounds are produced at the BACK of the mouth.
    Diffuse
  23. Some processes are natural like coalescence, metathesis, epenthesis; these are examples of what?
    Assimilation/Simplification Processes
  24. Phonological Awareness where school age children have the ability to identify words that begin with certain sounds are called _________.
    Alliteration
  25. Phonological process: Glides and Liquids are also called __________; sounds are produced by partial contact between two articulators.
    Approximates
  26. Stopping, Deaffrication, Velar Fronting, Depalatalization, Backing, Liquid Gliding, and Vocalization (vowelization) are all example of ______________ processes.
    Substitution Processes
  27. Common error pattern where there is a deletion of final /l/ or /r/; this would be a common error pattern for which class?
    Liquids
  28. Common error pattern where there is a substitution of /s/ for /sh/ ("ship" becomes "sip"); this would be a common error pattern for which class?
    Palatal fricative (resulting in depalatization)
  29. Example of "plane" becoming "pane" is an example of what class of common error pattern?
    Cluster Reduction
  30. An articulatory or acoustic parameter whose presence or absence defines a phoneme is called?
    Distinctive Feature
  31. By what age should a child have acquired all the vowels of English (excluding er)?
    Age 3
  32. When a child actively selects words that are important or remarkable to them.
    Salience Factor
  33. What's the term for sounds that are consonant-like but not a true consonant?
    Contoid
  34. Utterances used in a consistent manner that has meaning to the child but not for the adults.
    • Invented Words
    • Protowords
    • Phonetically Consistent Forms (PCF)
    • Vocables
    • Quasi-Words
  35. What are the developmental stages and what happens in each?
    • Stage 1: PHONATION (birth-1 month) is reflexive vocalizations as automatic responses reflecting physical state, non-reflexive vocalizations like nasals, vegetative sounds, and vocoids.
    • Stage 2: COO & GOO (2-3 months) is cooing/laughing, back vowels & consonants, irregular timing of CV.
    • Stage 3: EXPLORATION/EXPANSION (4-6 months) is vocal play, raspberries-fricatives, marginal babbling (CV & VC)
    • Stage 4: CANONICAL BABBLING (7-9 months+) is Reduplicated and Nonreduplicated (variegated) babbling, Bilabial & Alveolar sounds, bilabials and alveolars increase, velars decrease.
    • Stage 5: VARIEGATED BABBLING (10 months+) is jargon mostly open syllables but some closed also.
  36. Syllable production requires rapid alternations of ________ and __________ parameters of control.
    Resonance and Constriction
  37. What are 2 ways of determining infant speech perception/localization?
    • High Amplitude Sucking Method
    • Visually Reinforced Head Turn Method
  38. How old is an infant when they can discriminate sound utterances from their own language?
    4 days old
  39. When does hearing develop?
    20th week of gestation in utero and can respond to sound.

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