terminology chapter 2
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a sagittal plane that divides the body,top and bottom,into equal left and right halves.
Standing up erect, facing forward, arms to side, palms toward front.
divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
upper, above,toward the head.
Lower, below, toward the feet.
situated nearest the midline or the beginning of the body structure.
farthest away the midline.
toward or nearer the side and away from the midline.
direction toward or nearest the midline, middle.
- Left Upper Quadrants
- (Pancrease stomach, spleen.)
located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis.
Aka chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and lungs.
is a muscle that separates (divides) the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
the study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function.
study of the function of the structures of the body.
path/o, ~ pathy
disease, suffering,feeling, emotion.
nature or physical.
is the space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarly the organs of the reproductive and excretory system.
- -The genetic structures located with in the nucleus of each cell.
- -Made up of the DNA molecules containg the body's genes (1000,000).
is inherited from either parent, the offspring will have that characteristic. (sickle cell anemia)
- -Is inheritied from only ONE parent, and a normal gene is inherited from the other parent, the offspring will not have the characteristic. ( doesnt have sickle cell anemia, but does have traits. transmit trait to their offsping)
- -The same recessive gene is inherited from BOTH parents the offspring will have that characteristic.
- -eye color:brown
- -vision: normal, color vision, Hyperopia (farsided)
- -hair: dark, curly, full head of hair
- - eye color: blue
- -vision: Myopia (nearsided), Monochromatism (one color), Nyctalopia ( blind at night).
- - hair: light, straight, baldness.
- (Arms) help keep chromosomes properly aligned during mitosis.
- -genetic material
- (Linear) they protect the ends of chromosomes similar to the way a tip of a shoelace keeps it from unraveling.
- -protects midbrain
- -secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead to other organs or exit the body. (sweat & salivary glands)
- -humans 99% H2O
Endocrine Glands (Term)
- -secrete hormones
- -flow directly in the blood stream.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (Term)
Embryonic Stem Cells (Term)
- -are undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell, however they have the ability to form any adulit cell.
- -they can proliferate (grow rapidly) in a lab.
- - more primative then adult stem cells.
- -comes from the cord blood found in the umbilical cord and placenta of a new born infant.
Hemopoetic Stem Cells
- divide to form more blood-forming stem cells.
- -RBC- transport oxygen, oxygenerator.
Embryonic Sources (Term)
- -newly formed embryo's
- -umbilical cord
- -placenta of a newborn.
- -long and flat bones
- -hip and femur
- dna is found in the nucleus of all types of cells except erythrocytes (RBC).
- - difference erythrocyte has no nucleus.
- - helix-shape of a spiral staircase. (twisted chromosomes)
- - double helix- is double strands of helix twisted together
- -nuclear dna found in nucleus of a cell
- - dna teams A/T&G/C (base pair)
- - replication, copy.
- ribonucleic acid is a chemical similar to dna
- -transmites genetic info from dna to proteins produced by the cell.
- -messenger for the replication process.
- - supports and connects organs and other body tissues. (bone/adipose)
- -types of connective tissues: dense, adipose, loose, and liquid.
- -ose-pertaining to.
- contains cells with specialized ability to react to stuimuli and to conduct electrical impulses.
- - most abundant
- -axon-sends info away
- -dendrite- recieves info
keep dna tightly wrapped around proteins (histones)
what are genetic disorders?
a disease caused by a "variation" (different form) or "mutation" (alteration) of a gene.
- -simple gene disorder-simple gene mutation. mutaion on one or both chromosomes.
- -chromosomal disorder- excess of deficiency of the genes that are located on the chromosomes, or structural changes....down syndrome.
- -multifactoral inheritance disorder-(enviroment) heart diseases and cancer.
- cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive system.
- - thick sticky mucus that clogs the lungs, leads to infection.
- Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator(CFTR) gene causes CF.
- -no symptoms
- -cant treat when pregnant
- -deadliest gene disorder
Why are RBC Abnormal?
hemoglobin s molecules stick to one another and form log, rod like structures.
Sickle Cell Anemia
- -abnormal Hgb (Hgbs)
- -rbc's essume an abnormal sickle shape
- -interferes with normal blood flow
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