Art History Test I Images Part I

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Jacci
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65442
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Art History Test I Images Part I
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2011-02-10 00:21:59
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Art History
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Paleolithic Through Ancient Egypt
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    • Akhenaten and His Family
    • Amarna
    • from modern Tell el-Armarna
    • 18th Dynasty
    • ca. 1350 BCE
    • Ankhs are present - symbolize life
    • Sunken relief
    • Depicted much more effeminate than other rulers
    • An intimate image of family - not as formal as other images depict
    • Bison - Tuc d'Audoubert Cave
    • ca. 13,000 BC
    • Modeling: forming a 3D form out of a malleable substance
  1. Elements of Architecture
    • Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun
    • 22.5 lbs of gold
    • ca. 1330 BC
    • from his tomb Valley of Kings
    • Made of two gold pieces that are molded together
    • Great Pyramids
    • Giza, Egypt
    • ca. 2500 BCE
    • Dynasty IV
    • LtoR - Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre, and Khufu
    • Ruled 2589-2503 BC
    • Necropolis
    • Stones come from 500 miles south
    • Khufu is the largest
    • Khafra is next largest and is Khufu’s son
    • Angles are associated with the rays of the sun
  2. Giza Khufu Diagram
    • Votive Statue of Gudea
    • Iraq ca. 2120 BC
    • Cuneiform inscriptions
    • Lagash
    • Dedicated himself and the statue to a goddess - divine poet and interpreter of dreams
    • Very stylized
    • Hall of Bulls
    • ca. 15,000 BCE
    • Lascaux
    • Paleolithic Europe
    • Inner Coffin of Tutankhamun's Sarcophagus
    • Tutankhamun’s Tomb in the Valley of the Kings
    • 18th Dynasty
    • Valley of Kings
    • May be one of the sons of Akhenaten
    • ca. 1330 BCE
    • Naturally occurring valley
    • Young ruler when he died
    • Ureas - the protrusion of cobra and vulture on the headdress
    • Khafra from Giza
    • 4th dynasty
    • Giza
    • ca. 2500 BCE
    • Statue was found buried upside down - possibly a slur campaign
    • Wearing Nemes headdress - striped - worn only by ruler
    • Horus is on his shoulder as a falcon again
    • Shown young and strong - at his prime
    • Statue is not completely finished
    • King Menkaure and His Wife Queen Khamerernebty
    • Giza, Egypt
    • 4th Dynasty
    • ca. 2500 BC
    • Shows importance of the queen and how she supports the ruler
    • Canon of proportion - a formula, grid system used to depict size of the person
    • Lamassu from Nimrud
    • guarding figure
    • Palace of Ashurnasirpal II
    • Assyrian
    • ca. 883-859
    • wings of an eagle
    • horned hat of a deity
    • divine figure
    • has five legs
    • Lascaux - Bird-headed Man with Bison and Rhinoceros
    • ca. 15-30,000 BC
    • A man instead of an animal is in the painting
    • Detail in the bison
    • The man is more abstract than the animals
    • Used in hunting rituals, trapping the image
    • Bull Lyre
    • Royal tomb at Ur
    • Iraq
    • Sumerian
    • ca. 2500 BC
    • Harp
  3. Mastaba Pyramid
  4. Narmer Drawing
    • People and Animals
    • Neolithic Europe
    • Rock Shelter Painting
    • Cogul, Spain
    • ca. 3000 BCE
    • More people being shown than earlier paintings and they are not abstract
    • No color
    • Palette of King Narmer
    • from Hierakonpolis, Egypt
    • Dynasty I
    • ca. 2800
    • Register - horizontal - displayed on the opposite side of Narmer smiting
    • Hathor - the bullhead depicted at the top - goddess of love and fertility
    • Horus is in it as an eagle
    • Narmer is smiting a person on the palette and is on both sides of the palette
    • Papyrus is present and Horus displayed as a falcon as a protector
    • Hieratic Scale is present
    • Early depiction of a ruler
    • Egyptian art tends to be conservative
    • People of lower class’ positions vary, Narmer’s does not.
    • Pech-Merle - Chapel of Bison/Panel of Spotted Horses
    • Horses
    • ca. 24,000 BC
    • Shape of rock on the right is the shape of the horse’s head
    • Hands
    • ca. 15,000 BC
    • Many caves have abstract forms in them
    • Queen Nefertiti
    • By Thutmose
    • Amarna
    • 18th Dynasty
    • ca. 1350 BC
    • Very realistic
    • Rosetta Stone
    • Egypt
    • 196 BCE
    • Decree of the priests at Memphis honoring Ptolemy V
    • Seated Scribe
    • Old Kingdom
    • Seated with a scroll
    • Important job
    • Well educated
    • Recorded many things
    • Males shown with reddish brownish skin
    • Women are shown with yellowish or white skin
    • Egypt
    • ca. 2400 BC
    • Possibly named Kai
    • Notion of strength and permanence is not as prominent compared to Khafra
    • Stele of Hammurabi
    • found at Susa
    • ca. 1750 BCE
    • Babylonian
    • Hammurabi is standing
    • Standing in front of Shamash - sun god of justice
    • Hieratic Scale with deity on top
    • Handing Hammurabi a rod and ring associated with power
    • Step Pyramid and Funerary Temple Complex of Djoser
    • At Saqqara
    • By Imhotep
    • Earliest known monumental architecture in Egypt
    • Saqqara, Egypt
    • ca. 2600 BCE
    • Heb-set courtyard
    • occurs every 13 years during an Egyptian king’s reign
    • King runs around the courtyard to show his vitality and strength as
    • king
    • Engaged Columns
    • Part of the fabric of the wall
    • Papyrus blossom capitals - Lower Egypt
    • Stonehenge
    • Neolithic England
    • Used as burial sites
    • ca. 2750-1500 BC
    • Stones were hauled to the site as many as 150 miles away
    • Aubrey Holes
    • Heel stone
    • Three phases
    • Mortis and tendon joints
    • Druids did not make it because the Druids did not exist at the time
  5. Stonehenge Detail
    • Woman from Willendorf
    • c. 22,000-21,000 BCE
    • Paleolithic Europe
    • Sculpture in the round
    • red ocher
    • small
    • Emphasis on hips, breast, genitalia - fertility
    • Possibly matrilineal society
    • Belly button is naturally occurring in the stone
    • Has very small arms - an unimportant part
    • No face - covered with either hair or some type of hat
    • Victory Stele of Naram-sin
    • ca. 2254-2218 BC
    • Akkadian
    • Hieratic Scale - most important person is always the biggest
    • Abstract Images
    • Stole from its original site by conquering people
    • Polytheistic culture
    • Vertical layout
    • Located in the Louvre
    • Votive Statues
    • Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar)
    • Iraq
    • ca. 2900-2600 BC
    • Sumerian
    • sculpture in the round
    • different sizes
    • prayer gesture
    • big eyes
  6. Skara Brae
    • Neolithic Europe
    • Scotland
    • ca. 2800 BCE
  7. Carved Vase Known as the Uruk Vase
    • Iraq
    • Sumerian
    • ca. 3300-3000 BCE
  8. Head of a Ruler
    • Akkadian
    • Iraq
    • ca. 2300-2200 BCE
  9. Ishtar Gate
    • 6th Century BCE
    • Neo-Babylonian
  10. Asurnasirrpal II Killing Lions
    • Iraq
    • Assyrian
    • ca. 850 BCE
  11. Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt
    • Egyptian
    • Saqqara
    • ca. 2400 BCE
  12. Temple of Ramses II
    • Egyptian
    • Abu Simbel
    • ca. 1250 BCE
  13. Post and Lintel
    The simplest architectural element with two posts standing vertically and one lintel on top of the posts laying horizontally.
  14. Corbelled Arch
    Rows or layers of stone are laid with the ends projecting beyond the row beneath it until the opposing layers almost meet and can be capped with a stone resting across the top of both layers
  15. Paleolithic Era
    Means "old stone"; the old stone age; 40,000-8,000 BCE
  16. Neolithic Era
    Means "new stone"; the new stone age; 8,000-2300 BCE; farming in Europe has begun
  17. Megalith
    Large stone used in Neolithic architecture
  18. Dolmen
    • The simplest type of megalithic tomb
    • Post and Lintel principle
    • Use of capstones
  19. Sculpture in the Round
    A sculpture that you can view all sides of.
  20. Relief Sculpture
    Three dimensional; background is carved away with the image projecting outwards
  21. Sympathetic Magic
    the idea that a picture of something would help ancient people do something
  22. Relative Dating
    Dating relying on the chronological relationships among objects in a single excavation or among several sites
  23. Radiometric Dating
    The most accurate method of absolute dating; measures the degree to which radioaive materials have disintegrated over time; Used to date organic materials (pigments, animals, plants, etc.)
  24. Mesopotamia
    a strip of land between the Tigris and Euphrates river; Present-day Iraq;
  25. City-State
    Prosperous cities that joined with surrounding territories; each had its own gods and government and social hierarchies emerged with the development of skills beyond agricultural ones
  26. Polytheistic
    The belief in more than one god.
  27. Cuneiform
    wedge shaped symbols pressed into clay tablets
  28. Stylus
    a pointed writing instrument used to keep business records
  29. Stele
    a stone slab placed vertically and decorated with inscriptions or reliefs; used as a grave marker or memorial
  30. Ziggurat
    a tall stepped tower of earthen materials often supporting a shrine
  31. Circumambulation
    moving around a holy objecst
  32. Tel/Huyuk
  33. Hieratic Scale
    Size associated with importance
  34. Registers
    the placement of self-contained bands of of reliefs in a vertical arrangement
  35. Votive Figures
    An image created as a devotional offering to a god or other deity
  36. Naram-sin
    Sargon's grandson; victorious over the people of the Zagros Mountains; Akkadian
  37. Hammurabi
    Ruled 1792-1750 BCE; Wrote the Code of Hammurabi; Babylonian
  38. Anu
    The sky god
  39. Nanna
    The moon god; aka Sin
  40. Ishtar
    Goddess of love and war
  41. Shamash
    Sun god and god of justice
  42. Crenellations
    notched walls; notches - crenels; built part of military defenses
  43. Lamassu
    extraordinary guardian-protectors of places and throne rooms
  44. Upper Egypt
    Southern Egypt
  45. Ka
    Life Force; suggested to live on in the body in the afterlife
  46. Lower Egypt
    Northern Egypt
  47. Hieroglyphs
    Greek for "sacred" and "to carve" pictographs and objects or creatures
  48. Nile
    the longest river in the world; rich and abundant in resources
  49. White Crown of Upper Egypt
    Shaped like a bowling pin, tall and club-like
  50. Red Crown of Lower Egypt
    Flat red cap with rising spiral
  51. Mastaba
    flat topped, one story building with slanted walls erected above an underground burial chamber; first constructed of mud brick, eventually constructed with cut stone
  52. Narmer
    Wore red crown of Lower Egypt, strong ruler
  53. Pyramid
    Built by the Egyptian people; first erected in the fourth dynasty; angled sides represent slanting rays of the sun; funerary structures
  54. Ra
    The sun god
  55. Serdab
    small, sealed room housing the ka statue of the deceased and a chapel designed to receive mourning relatives and offerings
  56. Canon of Proportion
    ratio between a figure's height and all of its component parts; calculated as multiples of a specific unit of measure - the width of a closed fist
  57. Engaged Columns
    Columns set into a wall
  58. Base
    The support of a column
  59. Shaft
    the main vertical section of a column between the capital and the base; usually circular in cross section
  60. Capital
    the sculpted block that tops a column that include different decorative elements
  61. Stepped Pyramid
    developed from the original single story mastaba; each step decreases size as it goes up; protects a tomb
  62. Osiris
    overseer of the realm of the dead
  63. Horus
    Son of Isis and Osiris; Protector of the gods in the form of a falcon
  64. Necropolis
    City of the dead west of the Nile
  65. Sarcophogus
    Coffin
  66. Cartouche
    Oval formed by a loop of rope
  67. Dynasty
    sequence of rulers considered members of the same family
  68. Djoser
    king reigning in the third dynasty; commissioned the earliest known monumental architecture in Egypt
  69. Hatshepsut
    Woman ruler of Egypt; ruled 1478-1458 BCE; buried in the Valley of Kings; wore the beard of a king and treated/addressed like a king
  70. Akenhaten
    was originally Amenhotep IV but changed his name once he found his monotheistic religion; reigned during the Amarna period
  71. Nefertiti
    wife of Akenhaten; perceived as the most beautiful woman; acted as co-ruler to Akenhaten
  72. Tutankhamun
    reverted back to traditional ways once he obtained the throne and had an untimely death and was buried in someone else's tomb since there was not one prepared
  73. Rameses II
    a powerful and long-lived king; made Egypt very powerful through military strategy;
  74. Imhotep
    the first architect in history known by name; built Djoser's step pyramid; highly educated prime minister and served as one of Djoser's chief advisers
  75. Khafre
    fourth dynasty king; ruled 2520-2494 BCE; his pyramid is the only one of the three Great Pyramids to still have its veneer; funerary complex is the best preserved;

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