CH. 1 Personality

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CH. 1 Personality
2011-02-10 09:19:48

Ch 1 info for exam 1
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  1. What is personality?
    is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (including the intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).
  2. 3 levels of analysis
    • human nature
    • individual group differences
    • Individual uniqueness
  3. Analysis:
    Human nature
    How we are like others

    Traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of out species and possessed by nearly everyone
  4. Analysis:
    Individual group differences
    How we are like some

    • Individual differences refer to ways in which each person is like some other people
    • (extroverts, high self-esteem)

    • Group differences refer to ways in which the people of one group differ from people in another group
    • (cultural and age differences)
  5. Analysis:
    Individual uniqueness
    How we are like no one

    Individual uniqueness refers to the fact that every individual has personal and unique qualities not shared by any other person in the world

    Individuals can be studied nomothetically or ideographically
  6. 6 domains of knowledge
    • biological
    • dispositional
    • Intrapsychic
    • Cognitive-experimental
    • Social and cultural
    • adjustment
  7. 6 domains of knowledge:
    Core assumption of biological approaches to personality is that humans are collections of biological systems, and these systems provide building blocks for behavior, thought, and emotion

    Behavioral genetics of personality

    Psychophysiology of personality

    Evolutionary personality psychology
  8. 6 domains of knowledge:
    Deals with ways in which individuals differ from one another and, therefore, cuts across all other domains

    Focus on number and nature of fundamental dispositions

    Goal of those working in this domain is to identify and measure the most important ways in which individuals differ from one another

    Also interested in the origin of individual differences and how these develop over time
  9. 6 domains of knowledge:
    Deals with mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside conscious awareness

    Classic and modern versions of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, including work on repression, denial, projection, and motives for power, achievement, and affiliation
  10. 6 domains of knowledge:
    Focuses on cognition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and desires about oneself and others

    Self and self-concept

    Goals we set and strive to meet

    Emotional experiences, in general and over time
  11. 6 domains of knowlegde:
    social and cultural
    Assumption that personality affects, and is affected by, cultural and social contexts

    Much work on cultural differences between groups (e.g., in social acceptability of aggression)

    Also much work on individual differences within cultures—how personality plays out in the social sphere, including work on sex differences and gender differences in personality processes, traits, and mechanisms

    At human nature level of analysis, all humans have common set of concerns they struggle with in the social sphere
  12. 6 domains of knowledge:
    Personality plays key role in how we cope, adapt, and adjust to events in daily life

    Personality linked with important health outcomes and problems in coping and adjustment
  13. Unique characteristices:
    Nomothetic research
    Statistical comparisons across individuals or groups

    Single characteristic or dimensions studies abstractly
  14. Unique characteristics:
    Ideographic research
    Focus on single individual; how characteristics manifest, combine, interact

    Often, case studies of individuals