med term chap 5.txt

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med term chap 5.txt
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  1. Cardiovascular
    Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
  2. Cardi/o
    Heart
  3. Vascul
    Blood vessels
  4. -ar
    Pertaining to
  5. Function of blood cells
    Play important roles in the immune system and endocrine system
  6. What is blood?
    Fluid tissue that transports O2 and nutrients to other body tissues and returns some waste products from these tissues to the kidneys and carriers carbon dioxide back to the lungs
  7. What are the major structures of the cardiovascular system?
    Heart, blood vessels, and blood
  8. What is the heart?
    Hollow, muscular organ located btwn the lungs
  9. Apex
    Pointed lower end of the heart
  10. Pericardium is also known as?
    Pericardial sac
  11. Pericardium
    Double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart
  12. Peri-
    Surrounding
  13. Cardi
    Heart
  14. -um
    Singular noun ending
  15. Membranous
    Pertaining to membrane whch is a thin layer of pliable tissue that covers or encloses a body part
  16. Parietal pericardium
    Tough outer layer that forms a fibrous sac that surrounds and protects the heart
  17. Visceral pericardium
    Inner layer of the pericardium, forms outer layer of the heart
  18. Epicardium
    Outer layer of the heart
  19. Pericardial fluid
    Founf between parietal and visceral layers, it acts as a lubricant to prevent friction between when the heart beats
  20. Epicardium
    External layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium
  21. Epi-
    Upon
  22. Myocardium is also known as?
    Myocardial muscle
  23. Myocardium
    Middle and thickest f the hearys three layers and consists of specialized cardiac muscle tissue
  24. My/o
    Muscle
  25. Endocardium
    Consists of epithelial tissue, is the inner lining of the heart
  26. Endo-
    Within
  27. Coronary arteries
    Supply O2 rich blood to the myocardium
  28. What do the veins do?
    Remove waste products from the myocardium
  29. Atria
    Two upper chambers of the heart. Recieving chambers and all bld vessels comin into th heart
  30. How is the atria seperated?
    Seperated by interatrial septum
  31. Septum
    Wall that seperates two chambers
  32. Ventricles
    Two lower chambers ofnthe heart
  33. Ventricle
    Normal hollow chamber of the heart or brain
  34. Ventricles are seperated by what?
    Interventricular septum
  35. Inter-
    Between
  36. Ventricul
    Ventricle
  37. -ar
    Pertaining to
  38. Tricuspid valve
    Controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle
  39. Tricuspid
    Three cusps (points)
  40. Pulmonary semilunar valve
    Located btwn the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
  41. Pulmonary
    Pertaining to the lungs
  42. Semilunar
    Half-moon; shaped like a half-moon
  43. Mitral valve is also known as?
    Bicuspid valve
  44. Mitral valve
    Btwn left atrium and left ventricle
  45. Mitral
    Shaped like a bishops miter(hat)
  46. Bicuspid
    Having two. cusps
  47. Aortic semilunar valve
    Located between left ventricle and aorta
  48. Oxygenated
    Oxygen-rich
  49. Deoxygenated
    Oxygen poor
  50. Pulmonary circulation
    Flow of blood only btwn heart and lungs
  51. Pulmonary arteries
    Carry deoxygenated blood ou of the right ventricle and into the lungs. Only arteries that carry deoxy blood
  52. Pulmonary veins
    Oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart. Only place where veins carry oxy blood
  53. Systemic circulation
    Floe of blood to everywhere in body except the lungs
  54. Electrical impulses
    Determins rate and regularity of the heart beat from nerves that stimulate the myocardium of the chambers of the heart
  55. Conduction system is controlled by?
    Sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, and bundle of His
  56. SA node
    Sinoatrial node
  57. Sinoatrial node location?
    Located in the posterior wall of the right atrium near enterance of the superiorvena cave
  58. SA node starts what?
    Starts each wave of muscle contraction in the heart which causes both atria to contract together forces bld into ventricles
  59. AV node
    Atrioventricular node
  60. AV node location?
    Located on floor of the rigbt atrium near the interatrial septum
  61. Bundle of His
    Group of fibers located within interventricular septum
  62. Purkinje fibers
    Speciealized conductive fibers located within the walls of the ventricle
  63. P wave
    Stimulation (contraction) of the atria
  64. QRS complex
    Shows stimulation (contraction) of the venfricles
  65. What happens to the atria when ventricles contract?
    Atria relaxes
  66. T wave
    Recovery ( relaxation) of thr ventricles
  67. What are the three major types of blood vessels?
    Arteries, capilarries, veins
  68. Arteries
    Large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all regions of body
  69. Endarterial
    Pertaining to the inner portion of an artery or within an artery
  70. Arterial blood
    Bright red cause its oxy rich
  71. Where does the main trunk of the arterial system begin?
    It begins from left ventricle of the heart
  72. Carotid arteries
    Major arteries tht carry bld toward head
  73. Common carotid is located?
    Located on each side of the neck
  74. Internal carotid
    Brings oxy rich blood to brain
  75. External carotid
    Brings bliid to face
  76. Arteriolar
    Smaller, thinner bran hes of arteries that carry blood to capillaries
  77. Veins
    Form a low pressure collecting system to return oxy poor blood to heart
  78. Venules
    Smallest veins that join to form the larger veins
  79. Superficial veins
    Located near surface
  80. Deep veins
    Locted within the tissues and away from the body surface
  81. Venae cavae
    Two largest veins in the bidy. Veins that return blood into the heart
  82. Superior vena cava
    Transports blood from the uppe portion of the body to the heart
  83. Inferior vena cava
    Transports blood fromthe lower lortions of the blood to the heart
  84. Capillaries
    Smallest blood vessels in the body
  85. Vascular
    Pertainin to blood vessels
  86. Arterioles
    Deliver blood to the capillaries
  87. SA node is known as?
    Natural pacemaker
  88. Pulse
    Rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart
  89. Blood pressure
    Measurment of thr amount of systolic and diastolic exerted against the walls of the arteries
  90. Systolic pressure
    Ventricles contract. Highest pressure against the walls of an artery
  91. Systole
    Contraction of heart
  92. Systolic
    Contraction phase
  93. Diastolic pressure
    Ventricles relax, lowest pressure against the walls of an artery
  94. Diastole
    Relaxation of heart
  95. Diastolic
    Relaxation phase
  96. Blood
    Fluid tissue.
  97. Blood is composed of?
    Composed of 55% liquid plasma and 45% firmed elements
  98. Plasma
    Straw colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones, and waste products
  99. What is the break down of plasmas ish?
    91% water and 9% is proteins including clotting proteins
  100. Fibrinogen and prothrombin
    Clotting proteins found in plasma. They have an important role in clot formation to control bleeding
  101. Serum
    Plasma fluid after the blood cells and the clotting proteins have been remived
  102. Erythrocytes is also known as?
    Rbc
  103. Erythrocytes
    Mature rbcs produced by red bone marrow
  104. Erythr/o
    Red
  105. -Cytes
    Cells
  106. Hemoglobin
    Iron-containing pigment of the erythrocytes
  107. Leukocyte also known as?
    White bld cells
  108. Leukocytes
    Involved in defending the body against infective organisms and foreign substances
  109. Leuk/o
    White
  110. Neutrophils
    Wbc, which are formed in red bone marrow
  111. What is the most common type of WBC?
    Neutrophils
  112. Phagocytosis
    Process of destroying pahogens by surrounding and swallowing them
  113. Basophils
    WBC; formed in red bone marrow. Responsible for the symptoms of allergies
  114. What is the least common type of WBC?
    Basophils
  115. Eosinophil
    WBC; formed in red bone marrow and then migrate to tissue throughout the body. Destroy parasitic organisms and play a major role in allergic reactions
  116. Lymphocyte
    WBC; formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and the spleen. Identify foreign ish and germs in thd body and produce antibidies that specifically target them
  117. Monocytes
    WBC; formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen provide immunological defenses against many infectious organism
  118. Thrombocytes is also known as?
    Platelets
  119. Thrombocytes
    Smallest formed elements of the blood. Play important role in blood clotting
  120. Thromb/o
    Clot
  121. Blood types
    Classified according to the presence or abaence of certain antigens
  122. Antigen
    Any substance that the body regards as being foreign
  123. Rh factor
    Refers to the presence or abscence of Rh antigen
  124. Blood gases
    Gases that are normally dissolved in the liquid portion of blood
  125. What are the major blood gases?
    Oxygen, CO2, N2
  126. Cardiologist
    Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, disease, and disorders of the heart
  127. -ologist
    Specialist
  128. Hematologist
    Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases, and disorders of the blood and blood-forming tissue
  129. Hemat
    Blood
  130. Vascular surgeon
    Physician who specialized in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels
  131. Congenital heart defect
    Structural abnormalities caused by the failure of the heart to develop normally after birth
  132. Congenital
    Present at birth
  133. Coronary artery disease
    Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle.
  134. Angia
    Pain
  135. Myocardial infarction
    Heart attack
  136. End-stage coronary artery disease
    Characterized by unrelenting agina and a severly limited lifestyle
  137. Athersclerosis
    Hardening and narrowin of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries
  138. Ather/o
    Plaque or fatty substance
  139. -sclerosis
    Abnormal hardening
  140. Plaque is found where?
    Found within the lumen of an artery
  141. Plaque
    Fatty deposit that is similar to the buildup of rust inside a pupe
  142. Lumen
    Opening within these vessels through which the blood flows
  143. Artheroma
    Deposite of plaque on or within the arterial wall
  144. -oma
    Tumor
  145. Ischemia heart disease
    Group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxy blood to the heart
  146. Ischemia
    Pertaining to the disruption of the blood supply
  147. Ischemia
    Condition in which there is an insuffiecent oxygen supply due to restricted blood flow by a part of the body
  148. Isch
    Hold back
  149. -emia
    Blood
  150. Cardia ischemia
    Lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle
  151. Angina is also known as?
    Angina pectoris
  152. Angina
    Condition of episides of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow tothe myocardium. Happens due to ishcemia of the heart muscle
  153. Myocardial infarction also known as ?
    Heart attack
  154. Myocardial infarction
    Occlusion of conditions are named for the affected valve, such as aortic valve stenosis
  155. Cardiac arrest
    Event where heart abrubtly stops or develops a very abnormal arrhythmia that prevents blood flow
  156. Arrhythmia
    An Abnormality or loss of normal rhythm of the heart beat
  157. Bradycardia
    Abnormally slow resting heart rate. Rate less than 60 beats per minute
  158. Brady-
    Slow
  159. -ia
    Abnormal condition
  160. Tachycardia
    Abnormally rapid resting heart rate. If over 100 beats per minute
  161. Tachy-
    Rapid
  162. Palpitation
    Pounding or racing heart witb or without irregularity in rhythm
  163. Atrial fibrillation also known as?
    A fib
  164. Atrial fibrillation
    Occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall
  165. Fibrillation
    Fast, uncontrolled heart beat
  166. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia is also known as?
    PAT
  167. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
    Episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium
  168. Paroxysmal
    Pertaining to sudden occurence
  169. Occlusion
    Total blockage
  170. Infarction
    Sudden insufficiency of blood
  171. Infarct
    Localized area of dead tissue caused by a lack of blood
  172. Heart failure is also known as?
    Congestive heart failure
  173. Heart failure
    Common in elderly; chronic cindition in which the heart is unable to pump out all of the blood that it recieves. Decreased pumping action causes congeztion
  174. Congestion
    Fluid build up
  175. Left-sided heart failure also known as?
    Pulmonary edema
  176. Pulmonary edema
    Causes an accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Left side no pumping blood to and from the lungs
  177. Right-sided heart failure
    Causes fluid buildup begining wuth the feet and legs. Right side not efficiently pumping blood to and from the rest of body
  178. Cardiomegaly
    Abnormal enlargement of the heat that is frequently associated with heart failure when the heart enlarges in an effort to compensate fir the loss of its pumping ability
  179. -megaly
    Abnormal enlargement
  180. Carditis
    Inflammation of the heart
  181. Endocarditis
    Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
  182. Endo-
    Within
  183. Bacterial endocarditis
    Inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
  184. Myocarditis
    InflammTion of myocardium
  185. Pericarditis
    Inflammation of pericardium that causes accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac
  186. Cardiomyopathy
    Describes all diseases of the heart muscle
  187. Dilated cardiomyopathy
    Disease of the heart muscle that causes that causes heart to become eblarged and pump less strongly
  188. Dilated
    Expansion of a hollow structure
  189. Heart murmur
    Abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart
  190. Valvulitis
    Inflammation of a heart valve
  191. Valvul
    Valve
  192. Valvular prolapse
    Abnormal protusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completley
  193. Valvular stenosis
    Condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart
  194. Stenosis
    Abnormal narrowing of an opening
  195. Ventricular fibrillation is also known as
    V fib
  196. V fib
    Rapid irregular and useless contraction of the ventricles.. Muscle quivers ineffectively
  197. Ventricular tachycardia Also known as ?
    V tach
  198. V tach
    Very rapid heart beat that begins within the ventricles
  199. Angitis also known as
    Vasculitis
  200. angi
    blood or lymph vessel
  201. angiostenosis
    bnormal narrowing of a blood vessel
  202. hemangioma
    benign tmor made up of newl formed blood vessels
  203. hypoperfusion
    deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part
  204. perfusion
    flow of blood through the vessels of an organ
  205. polyarteritis is also known as?
    plyarteritis nodosa
  206. polyarteritis
    form of angitis involving several medium and small arteries at the same time. serious blood vessel disease that occurs when certain immune cells attack the affected arteries
  207. peripheral vasucalr disease
    disorders of he blood vessels located outside the heart and brain.
  208. peripheral arterial occlusive disease is also known as?
    peripheral artery disease
  209. peripheral arterial occulusive disease
    caused by artherosclerosis. impaired circulation to the extermities and vital organs causes changes in the skin color nd temp. and intermittent claudication
  210. raynaud's phenomenon
    peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress. sympotoms, which are due to constricted circulation, include pallor (paleness), cyanosis (blue color), and then redness of the fingers and toes
  211. aneurysm
    localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement, of the wall of an artery.
  212. arteriosclerosis
    any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening and the loss of elasticit of arterial walls
  213. chronic venous insuffieciency
    condition in which venous ciruculation is inadequate due to partial vien blockage or leakage of venous valves. affects feet and ankles, and the leakage of venous blood into tissues causeing discoloration of the skin
  214. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  215. phleb
    vein
  216. varicose veins
    abnormally swollen veins, usually occuring in the superficial veings of the legs.
  217. thrombosis
    abnormal condition of haing a thrombus
  218. thromb
    clot
  219. thrombus
    blood clot attached to interior wall of an artery or vein
  220. thrombotic occlusion
    blocking of an arter by a thrombus
  221. thrombotic
    caused by a thrombus
  222. occlusion
    blockage
  223. coronary thrombosis
    damage to teh heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronar artery
  224. coron
    crown
  225. deep vein thrombosis
    condition of having a thrombus attached to the wall of a deep vein
  226. embolism
    sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
  227. embol
    something insterted
  228. embolus
    foreign object, such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas that is circulating in the blood
  229. blood dyscrasia
    any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood
  230. -crasia
    mixture or blending
  231. hemochromatosis
    genetic disorder in which the intestines absorb too much iron
  232. chromat
    color
  233. leukopenia
    any situation in which the total number of luekocytes in the circulating blood is less than normal
  234. -penia
    deficiency
  235. polycythemia
    abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of these cells by t he bone marrow
  236. septicemia
    systemic condition caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxin via the circulating blood
  237. thrombocytopenia
    condition in which there is an anormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood
  238. thromb/o
    thrombus - blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein
  239. thrombocytosis
    abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the circulatig blood
  240. hemorrhage
    is the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time. this means to bleed
  241. transfsion reaction
    serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patients blood and the donated blood do not match
  242. cholesterol
    faty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body
  243. hyperlipidemia
    general term use to described elevated levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood
  244. lipid
    fat
  245. -emia
    blood condition
  246. myelodysplastic syndrom
    group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow
  247. leukemia
    type of cnacer charaterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes found in blood forming tissues other organs and in the circulating blood
  248. anemia
    lower than normal number or erthrocytes in the blood
  249. an-
    without or less than
  250. aplastic anemia
    characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow
  251. plast
    growth
  252. hemolytic anemia
    condition of an inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen
  253. -lytic
    destroy
  254. hemolytic
    pertianing to breaking down of red blood cells
  255. iron-deficiency anemia
    most common form of anemia
  256. megaloblastic anemia
    blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal
  257. pernicious nemia
    caused by a lack of the protein intrinsic factor that helps the body absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract
  258. sickle cell anemia
    genetic disorder that cuases abnormal hemogglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an anormal sickle shape this shape interferes with normal blood flow resulting in damage to most of the body systems
  259. thalassemia
    inherited blood disorder that causes mild or severe anemia due to reduced hemoglobin and fewer red blood cells than normal
  260. hypertension
    elevation of arterial blood pressure to a level that is likely to cause damage to the ardiovascular system
  261. essential hypertension
    consistently elevated blood pressure of unknown cause
  262. idiopathic
    disease of unknown cause
  263. hypotention
    lower than normal arterial blood pressure
  264. orthostatic hypotension
    low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up
  265. andiography
    radiographic study of the blood vessels afer the injection of a contrast medium
  266. cardia catheterization
    diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is passed into a vein or artery and then guided into the heart. then contrast medium is introduced to produce an angiogram to dtermine how well the heart is working
  267. digital subtraction angiography
    combines angiography with computerized components to clarify the view of the are of interst by removing the soft tissue and bones from the images
  268. phlebography
    radiographic test that provides an image of the leg veins fter a contrast dye is injected into a vein in the pations foot
  269. electrocardography
    noninvasive process of recording the electrical activity of thhe myocardium
  270. holter monitor
    portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient o continously monitor the heart rates and rhythms over a 24hr period
  271. thallium stress test
    performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of he heart muscle during exercise
  272. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    procedure in which a small balloon on the end of a catheter is sued to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flttening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen
  273. stent
    wire-mesh tube that is commonly placed afer the arter has been opened in angioplast. provides support to the arterial wall to keep the plaque from expanding as well
  274. restenosis
    condition when artery that has been opened b angioplasty closes again
  275. atherectomy
    surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery
  276. carotid endarterectomy
    surgical removal of the lining of a potion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain
  277. coronary artery bypass graft
    opening the chest, piece of veing from the leg is implanted on the heart to replace a blocked coronary artery and improve the flow of blood to the heart
  278. CABG
    coronary artery bypass graft
  279. defibrillation
    use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm
  280. automated external defibrillator
    designed for use by nonprofessions in emergency situations when defibrillation is required
  281. artificial pacemaker
    primarily as a treatment for bradycardia or atrial fibrillation
  282. valvoplasty
    surgical repair or replacement of a heart valve
  283. what does CPR stand for?
    it stands for cardiopulmonary resucitation
  284. hemostasis
    stop or control bleeding
  285. AF
    atrial fibrillation
  286. CC
    cardiac catheterization
  287. CVI
    chronic venous insufficiency
  288. CAD
    coronary artery disease
  289. EKG, ECG
    electrocardiogram
  290. MI
    myocardialinfection
  291. PAD
    peripheral artery disease
  292. PVD
    peripheral vascular disease
  293. VF
    ventricular fibrillation

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