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What are the names of the two phyla discussed and what are some examples?
Mollusca-snails, slugs, clams
Annelida- earthworms, leeches
What are the 5 characteristics of the body plan of a mollusk? What is the function of each?
- Shell- Protection
- Mantle- Secretes the shell
- Visceral Mass- contains internal organs
- Radula- scraping structure for feeding
- Foot- muscular for movement
What are the names of the 3 major classes of Mollusca? Be able to give some examples of each.
Gastropoda- snails, slugs, sea slugs
Bivalvia- clams, sccallops
Cephalopoda- squid, octopus
What is torsion? and what is the result in an adult snail?
180o twisting of visceral mass happens during embyonic development (snails)
-mantle cavity and anus are over the head
Most endangered group of animals in North America? Why are they endangered?
parasitic larvae live on gills of specific fish which are thretened or rare
what hosts are required for freshwater clams to develop from larvae into adults?
specific fish which are threatened or rare
How do female clams ensure that their parasitic larvae get to an appropriate fish host? Be able to give some examples of animals that femal clams mimic.
They lure them in by mimicing a small fish like a small crayfish
Why do most cephalopods have such well-developed heads?
They are an evolved intelligence because they are predators who need to be smart.
What is the most intelligent invertebrate? What is one explanation for the superior intelligence?
- lost their shells so in response evolved well developed heads and superior intelligence needed to outsmart predators and prey.
On slide 12 what does the graph show? What does the graph say about how Octopus vulgaris learn?
- it took 17 tials to train them with "Operant" learning (neg. pos. reinforcement)
- only 4 trials to train with observational learning
- They learn fastest by observational learning
What is meant by learning by habituation? Name 2 examples
- Loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little information
- sea hare becomes habituated to light touch on its foot, eventually learns there is no threat.
- Crying wolf- animals can be habituated to alarm calls when they're not followed by a real threat
Name and describe the 2 forms of spatial learning.
Landmark- use objects to find things or give directions
Cognitive maps- internal representations of spatial relationships (blue print of house I grew up in)
Associative learning? Give and example.
What is the other name of associative learning?
- learn by associating an object with a stimulus (reward/punishment)
- ex. gold star
- positive reinforcement
- classical conditioning
Describe operant conditioning. you should be able to describe and give examples of positive and negative reinforcemnet, punishment and omission training.
goal directed form of associative learning
- (Trains to repeat behavior)
- - pos. reinforcement: action causes reward
- -neg. reinforcement: action removes undesirable stimulus (leave for work early to avoid traffic
- (Trains to avoid behavior)
- - punishment: action elicits an endesirable stimulus (jail)
- - omission training: performing an action prevents delivery of pleasant stimulus (don't eat dinner, no ice cream)
What are the characteristics that distinguish imprinting from other forms of learning. Give an example of imprinting.
There's a learned component but also an innate component
ex. whooping cranes, geese boots
What is segmentation? What are the benefits of possessing segmentation?
Repeated structures along length of a body results in non-fatal injuries leads to precise locomotion.
What are chaetae? What are their function? which group of annelids lacks them?
- Bristles; used for traction
- leeches lach chaetae
What are the names of the 2 major classes of Annelida? Be able to give examples of each.
Polychaeta- tube worms and clam worms
Clitellata- oligochaetes, leeches
How do Riftia worms survive without mouths and digestive tracts?
all or their nutrients come from chemoautotrophic bacteria
Which type of nutritional mode is used by the bacteria living in the Riftia?
What were medicinal leeches used for in the past and today?
past- almost every sickness
today- re-attaching limbs, arthritis because of anesthetic in saliva
What characteristics of leech saliva make them useful in modern medicine?
- anticoagulants- blood clots
- anesthetic- pain killer
- don't pull off leach before it is finished or teeth will stay in skin and cause infection