cleng

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cleng
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65564
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cleng
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2011-02-11 15:55:04
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protein
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  1. proteins contain the atoms as carbohydrates and lipids- carbon,hydrogen and oxygen-but protein contain_______
    nitrogen atom
  2. compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms, arranged into amino acids linked in a chain
    proteins
  3. protein assume _____ and _____, which enable them to play their vital roles in the body
    • extraordinary
    • unique shapes
  4. people commonly associate protein with ______ and ______
    • strength
    • meat
  5. a vital structural and working substance in all cells, not just muscles
    protein
  6. these____ give the name amino to the amino acids-links in the chain
    protein
  7. all amino acids have the same structure
    • central carbon with hydrogen
    • amino acid group
    • an acid group attached to it
  8. Carbon atoms need to foom __ bonds, so the ___ attachment is necessar, and it is the ____ site that distinguishes each amino acids from the other
    • four
    • 4th
    • 4th
  9. Attached to the carbon atom at the fourth bond is a distinct atom, or group of atoms known as
    side group or side chain
  10. building blocks of protein
    amino acids
  11. A protein is made up of about _____ different amino acids, each with a ______ side group
    • 20
    • different
  12. simplest amino acid- has hydrogen atom as its side
    glycine
  13. amino acids that the body can synthesize
    nonessential amino acids
  14. how many are nonessential amino acids
    11 nonessential amino acids
  15. amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs
    essential amino acids
  16. how many are essential amino acids
    9
  17. There are ____ amino acids that the body either cannot make at all or cannot make in sufficient quantity to meets its needs
    9
  18. These nine amino acids must be supplied by the ______
    diet
  19. an amino acid that is normally nonessential but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it
    conditionally essential acid
  20. many (ten 0r more) amino acids bonded together
    polypeptic
  21. two amino acid bonded together
    dipeptide
  22. substances that are attracted to water
    hydrophilic
  23. substances that are repelled by water
    hydrophobic
  24. As amino acids are strung together to make a _______, the chain folds so that its charged hydrophilic side chains are on outer surface near water
    polypeptide
  25. As amino acids are strung together to make a polypetide, the chain folds so that its charged hydrophilic side chains are on outer surface _____ water
    near
  26. As amino acids are strung together to make a polypetide, the chain folds so that its charged _____ side chains are on outer surface near water
    hydrophilic
  27. chains that are neutral and are expelled by water
    hydrophobic
  28. As amino acids are strung together to make a polypetide, the neutral _____ groups tuck themselves inside, away from water
    hydrophobic
  29. The ____ shapes of proteins enable them to perform various task in the body
    different
  30. The different _____ of proteins enable them to perform various task in the body
    shapes
  31. the globular protein of the RBC that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells through the body
    hemoglobin
  32. The large globularprotein molecule that packs the RBC and carries oxygen--is made of four associated polypeptide chains, each holding the mineral iron
    hemoglobin
  33. Protein function:some ______that can carry and store materials within them, and some such as those of tendons, are more than ten times as long as they are wide, forming strong rodlike structures
    hollow balls
  34. When person eats food containing protein,_____break the long polypeptide strands into shorter strands
    enzymes
  35. When person eats food containing protein,enzymes break the_______ into shorter strands.
    long polypeptide strands
  36. When a person eats food containing protein:
    1.Enzyme break the _______ into shorter strands
    2 the short stands into _______.
    3. and finally the tripeptide and diceptides to _______.
    • 1. long polypeptide strands
    • 2.tripeptide and dipeptide
    • 3. amino acids
  37. continious breakdown and synthesis of body proteins involving the recycling of amino acids
    protein turnover
  38. When protein breakdown- they ____ amino acids to join the general circulation
    free
  39. degredation and synthesis of endogenous protein
    protein turnover
  40. the amount of nitrogen consumed (N in) as compared with amount of nitrogen excreted (N out) in a given period of time
    nitrogen balance
  41. if the body maintains the same amount of protein in its tissues form from day to day it is called
    nitrogen balance
  42. if the body loses protein it is called
    negative nitrogen balance
  43. if the body adds protein it is called
    positive nitrogen balance
  44. Example of positive nitrogen balance
    growing infants and children, pregnant women, people recovering from protein dificiency or illness
  45. Example of negative nitrogen balance
    starving or suffering other severe stress such as, burns, injuries, infections and fever
  46. serve as protein catalyst
    enzyme
  47. In the stomach, hydrochloric acid uncoils(denature) each protein's tangled strands so that the digestive enzymes can attack the ______
    peptide bonds
  48. In the stomach, hydrochloric acid also converts the _____ form of the enzyme pepsinogen to its active form pepsin
    inactive
  49. a gastric protease
    pepsin
  50. In the stomach, hydrochloric acid also converts the inactive form of the enzyme pepsinogen to its active form ______
    pepsin
  51. When polypetides enter the small intestine, ______and _______ hydrolyze them further into short peptide chains,tripeptides,dipeptides and amino acids
    • pancreatic
    • intestinal protease
  52. When polypetides enter the small intestine, pancreatic and intestinal proteases hydrolyze them further into:
    short peptide chains,tripeptides,dipeptides and amino acids
  53. The cells of the small intestines absorb ________and have peptidase enzymes on their surfaces that split most of the depeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids
    amino acids
  54. The cells of the small intestines absorb amino acids and have _____ enzymes on their surfaces that split most of the depeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids
    peptidase
  55. The cells of the small intestines absorb amino acid and have peptidase enzymes on their surfaces that _____ most of the depeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids
    split
  56. The cells of the small intestines absorb ______and have______enzymes on their surfaces that split most of the dipeptides and tripeptides into ______.
    • amino acids
    • peptidase
    • single amino acids
  57. A few dipeptides, tripeptides, and even larger molecules sometimes escape digestion and cross the digestive tract wall to enter the _______.
    bloodstream
  58. A few dipeptides, tripeptides, and even larger molecules sometimes escape digestion and cross the ______ to enter the bloodstream
    digestive tract wall
  59. Via digestion facilitated mostly by _______
    stomach's acid and enzymes
  60. The ____ first denatures dietary proteins, then cleaves them into polypeptides.
    body
  61. The body first denatures _______,then cleaves them into polypeptides.
    dietary proteins
  62. The carriers in the membrane of intestinal cells transport the amino acids into the cells, where they released into the __________
    bloodstream
  63. The carriers in the membrane of intestinal cells transport the amino acids into the ____, where they released into the bloodstream.
    cells
  64. The carriers in the membrane of intestinal cells transport the_____ into the cells, where they released into the bloodstream
    amino acids
  65. From the moment of conception, as the body grows, it uses protein as _________.
    building blocks
  66. proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process
    enzyme
  67. protein catalyst
    enzyme
  68. ____not only break down substance, they also build substance and transform one substance into another
    Enzymes
  69. They are catalyst,permitting reactions to occur more quickly and efficiently than if substances depended on chance encounters alone
    enzyme
  70. hydrolyze larger compounds to smaller compounds
    enzyme
  71. cluster of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicle for lipids in the lymph and blood
    lipoprotein
  72. protein also ____ the body against disease.
    defend
  73. The protein are broken down by proteins(digestive enzymes) into ______
    amino acids
  74. The amino acids enter the body cells, where protein(syntetases)link them into ______ whose sequences are specified by DNA.
    long chain
  75. The ______ enter the body cells, where protein(syntetases)link them into long chain whose sequences are specified by DNA.
    amino acids
  76. The amino acids enter the body cells, where_____link them into long chain whose sequences are specified by DNA.
    syntetases
  77. The chain ____ and ____ forming proteins, some of which are enzyme
    twist and fold
  78. help to maintian the body's fluid and electrolyte balance
    protein
  79. help to maintain the balance between acids and bases with body fluids
    protein
  80. the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial spaces
    edema
  81. seen in protein dificiency
    edema
  82. Normal body processes continually produce ___ and ____ which the blood carries to kidneys and lungs for excretion.
    acid and base
  83. Normal body processes continually produce acid and base which the blood carries to______and ____ for excretion
    kidneys and lungs
  84. The more hydrogen ions, the more concentrated the ____, which have positive charges.
    acid
  85. The more ______, the more concentrated the acid,which have positive charges.
    hydrogen ions
  86. Protein acts as a ____, maintaining the acid base of the blood and body bluids.
    buffers
  87. Protein acts as a buffers, maintaining the acid base of the _______.
    blood and body bluids
  88. Example of acid base balance:When denatured, loses its capacity to carry oxygen
    hemoglobin
  89. When denatured, loses its capacity to carry oxygen
    hemoglobin
  90. the carrier protein
    transferrin
  91. the protein residing in the cells of the intestinal walls
    ferritin
  92. the storage protein
    ferritin
  93. the red blood cell protein
    hemoglobin
  94. muscle cell protein
    myoglobin
  95. large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules
    antibodies
  96. _____combine with and inactivate the the foreign invaders, thus protecting the body.
    antibodies
  97. the body's ability to recognize and eliminate foreign invaders.
    immunity
  98. each antibody is designed to destroy just ____ envader.
    one
  99. The next time the body encounter the same invader it will produce antibodies even more quickly. It develops a molecular memory called
    immunity
  100. protein is constantly being made and ________
    broken down
  101. the protein in the body
    endogenous protein
  102. protein that participate the flux
    endegoneous protein
  103. protein in foods is called
    exogenous protein
  104. serve the body as building blocks in the growth and repair of tissue
    protein
  105. protein serve the body as ________ in the growth and repair of tissue
    building blocks
  106. protein are constantly ____and ____ as needed
    synthesized and broken down
  107. The body's assimilation of amino acids into proteins and release of amino acids via protein degradation and excretion can be tracked by measuring ________, which should be _____ during growth and ______ in adulthood.
    • nitrogen balnce
    • positive
    • steady
  108. An energy deficit or an inadequate protein intake may force the body to use amino acids as fuel- causing_______.
    negative nitrogen balance
  109. Protein eaten in excess of need is degraded and stored as _____.
    body fat
  110. Protein eaten in excess of need is ____ and ____as body fat.
    • degraded
    • stored
  111. When glucose or fatty acids are limited, cells are forced to use amino acids for ______ and _____.
    • energy
    • glucose
  112. The body does not make a _______ form of protein as it does for carbohydrate and fat.
    specialized storage
  113. Glucose stored as glycogen and fat as _______, but protein in the body is available only as the working and structural components of the tissues.
    triglycerides
  114. Glucose stored as glycogen and fat as triglycerideds, but protein in the body is available only as the ______ and ______ components of the tissues.
    • working
    • structural
  115. When the need arises, the body_____ itd tissue proteins and uses them for energy
    dismantle
  116. To prevent protein beakdown, dietary protein must supply at least ___ amino acids plus enough nitrogen- containing _____ and _____for the synthesis of the others
    • 9
    • amino groups
    • energy

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