proteins contain the atoms as carbohydrates and lipids- carbon,hydrogen and oxygen-but protein contain_______
compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms, arranged into amino acids linked in a chain
protein assume _____ and _____, which enable them to play their vital roles in the body
people commonly associate protein with ______ and ______
a vital structural and working substance in all cells, not just muscles
these____ give the name amino to the amino acids-links in the chain
all amino acids have the same structure
central carbon with hydrogen
amino acid group
an acid group attached to it
Carbon atoms need to foom __ bonds, so the ___ attachment is necessar, and it is the ____ site that distinguishes each amino acids from the other
Attached to the carbon atom at the fourth bond is a distinct atom, or group of atoms known as
side group or side chain
building blocks of protein
A protein is made up of about _____ different amino acids, each with a ______ side group
simplest amino acid- has hydrogen atom as its side
amino acids that the body can synthesize
nonessential amino acids
how many are nonessential amino acids
11 nonessential amino acids
amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs
essential amino acids
how many are essential amino acids
There are ____ amino acids that the body either cannot make at all or cannot make in sufficient quantity to meets its needs
These nine amino acids must be supplied by the ______
an amino acid that is normally nonessential but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it
conditionally essential acid
many (ten 0r more) amino acids bonded together
two amino acid bonded together
substances that are attracted to water
substances that are repelled by water
As amino acids are strung together to make a _______, the chain folds so that its charged hydrophilic side chains are on outer surface near water
As amino acids are strung together to make a polypetide, the chain folds so that its charged hydrophilic side chains are on outer surface _____ water
As amino acids are strung together to make a polypetide, the chain folds so that its charged _____ side chains are on outer surface near water
chains that are neutral and are expelled by water
As amino acids are strung together to make a polypetide, the neutral _____ groups tuck themselves inside, away from water
The ____ shapes of proteins enable them to perform various task in the body
The different _____ of proteins enable them to perform various task in the body
the globular protein of the RBC that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells through the body
The large globularprotein molecule that packs the RBC and carries oxygen--is made of four associated polypeptide chains, each holding the mineral iron
Protein function:some ______that can carry and store materials within them, and some such as those of tendons, are more than ten times as long as they are wide, forming strong rodlike structures
When person eats food containing protein,_____break the long polypeptide strands into shorter strands
When person eats food containing protein,enzymes break the_______ into shorter strands.
long polypeptide strands
When a person eats food containing protein:
1.Enzyme break the _______ into shorter strands
2 the short stands into _______.
3. and finally the tripeptide and diceptides to _______.
1. long polypeptide strands
2.tripeptide and dipeptide
3. amino acids
continious breakdown and synthesis of body proteins involving the recycling of amino acids
When protein breakdown- they ____ amino acids to join the general circulation
degredation and synthesis of endogenous protein
the amount of nitrogen consumed (N in) as compared with amount of nitrogen excreted (N out) in a given period of time
if the body maintains the same amount of protein in its tissues form from day to day it is called
if the body loses protein it is called
negative nitrogen balance
if the body adds protein it is called
positive nitrogen balance
Example of positive nitrogen balance
growing infants and children, pregnant women, people recovering from protein dificiency or illness
Example of negative nitrogen balance
starving or suffering other severe stress such as, burns, injuries, infections and fever
serve as protein catalyst
In the stomach, hydrochloric acid uncoils(denature) each protein's tangled strands so that the digestive enzymes can attack the ______
In the stomach, hydrochloric acid also converts the _____ form of the enzyme pepsinogen to its active form pepsin
a gastric protease
In the stomach, hydrochloric acid also converts the inactive form of the enzyme pepsinogen to its active form ______
When polypetides enter the small intestine, ______and _______ hydrolyze them further into short peptide chains,tripeptides,dipeptides and amino acids
When polypetides enter the small intestine, pancreatic and intestinal proteases hydrolyze them further into:
short peptide chains,tripeptides,dipeptides and amino acids
The cells of the small intestines absorb ________and have peptidase enzymes on their surfaces that split most of the depeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids
The cells of the small intestines absorb amino acids and have _____ enzymes on their surfaces that split most of the depeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids
The cells of the small intestines absorb amino acid and have peptidase enzymes on their surfaces that _____ most of the depeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids
The cells of the small intestines absorb ______and have______enzymes on their surfaces that split most of the dipeptides and tripeptides into ______.
single amino acids
A few dipeptides, tripeptides, and even larger molecules sometimes escape digestion and cross the digestive tract wall to enter the _______.
A few dipeptides, tripeptides, and even larger molecules sometimes escape digestion and cross the ______ to enter the bloodstream
digestive tract wall
Via digestion facilitated mostly by _______
stomach's acid and enzymes
The ____ first denatures dietary proteins, then cleaves them into polypeptides.
The body first denatures _______,then cleaves them into polypeptides.
The carriers in the membrane of intestinal cells transport the amino acids into the cells, where they released into the __________
The carriers in the membrane of intestinal cells transport the amino acids into the ____, where they released into the bloodstream.
The carriers in the membrane of intestinal cells transport the_____ into the cells, where they released into the bloodstream
From the moment of conception, as the body grows, it uses protein as _________.
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process
____not only break down substance, they also build substance and transform one substance into another
They are catalyst,permitting reactions to occur more quickly and efficiently than if substances depended on chance encounters alone
hydrolyze larger compounds to smaller compounds
cluster of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicle for lipids in the lymph and blood
protein also ____ the body against disease.
The protein are broken down by proteins(digestive enzymes) into ______
The amino acids enter the body cells, where protein(syntetases)link them into ______ whose sequences are specified by DNA.
The ______ enter the body cells, where protein(syntetases)link them into long chain whose sequences are specified by DNA.
The amino acids enter the body cells, where_____link them into long chain whose sequences are specified by DNA.
The chain ____ and ____ forming proteins, some of which are enzyme
twist and fold
help to maintian the body's fluid and electrolyte balance
help to maintain the balance between acids and bases with body fluids
the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial spaces
seen in protein dificiency
Normal body processes continually produce ___ and ____ which the blood carries to kidneys and lungs for excretion.
acid and base
Normal body processes continually produce acid and base which the blood carries to______and ____ for excretion
kidneys and lungs
The more hydrogen ions, the more concentrated the ____, which have positive charges.
The more ______, the more concentrated the acid,which have positive charges.
Protein acts as a ____, maintaining the acid base of the blood and body bluids.
Protein acts as a buffers, maintaining the acid base of the _______.
blood and body bluids
Example of acid base balance:When denatured, loses its capacity to carry oxygen
When denatured, loses its capacity to carry oxygen
the carrier protein
the protein residing in the cells of the intestinal walls
the storage protein
the red blood cell protein
muscle cell protein
large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules
_____combine with and inactivate the the foreign invaders, thus protecting the body.
the body's ability to recognize and eliminate foreign invaders.
each antibody is designed to destroy just ____ envader.
The next time the body encounter the same invader it will produce antibodies even more quickly. It develops a molecular memory called
protein is constantly being made and ________
the protein in the body
protein that participate the flux
protein in foods is called
serve the body as building blocks in the growth and repair of tissue
protein serve the body as ________ in the growth and repair of tissue
protein are constantly ____and ____ as needed
synthesized and broken down
The body's assimilation of amino acids into proteins and release of amino acids via protein degradation and excretion can be tracked by measuring ________, which should be _____ during growth and ______ in adulthood.
An energy deficit or an inadequate protein intake may force the body to use amino acids as fuel- causing_______.
negative nitrogen balance
Protein eaten in excess of need is degraded and stored as _____.
Protein eaten in excess of need is ____ and ____as body fat.
When glucose or fatty acids are limited, cells are forced to use amino acids for ______ and _____.
The body does not make a _______ form of protein as it does for carbohydrate and fat.
Glucose stored as glycogen and fat as _______, but protein in the body is available only as the working and structural components of the tissues.
Glucose stored as glycogen and fat as triglycerideds, but protein in the body is available only as the ______ and ______ components of the tissues.
When the need arises, the body_____ itd tissue proteins and uses them for energy
To prevent protein beakdown, dietary protein must supply at least ___ amino acids plus enough nitrogen- containing _____ and _____for the synthesis of the others