Card Set Information
Psych ch1 ch2 ch3 ch4
Material for test 1
What are the characteristics of life-span perspective?
characterized by growth, maintenance, and regulation
What are the different conceptions of age?
What are the different approaches to reasearch time spans?
cross-sectional - groups are taken at same time
longitudinal - groups are followed over time
sequential - combines cross-sectional and longitudinal
What is the cohort effect?
When there are individuals in a study group who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience.
Associate developmental theories with the scientist.
: Freud and Erikson
: Pavlov, Watson, Skinner
Sigmund Freud was notable because:
Id, ego, superego
: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
everything based aroung libido
when conflict is not resolved, fixation results
Erikson was notable because:
: trust/mistrust, autonomy/shame & doubt, initiative/guilt, industry/inferiority, indentity/identity confusion, intimacy/isolation, generativity/stagnation, integrity/despair
positive view on human development
Piaget was notable because:
observed own children to form theories
children are "little scientists"
assimilation and accomodation
: sensorimotor, preoperational , concrete operations, formal operations
Lev Vygotsky was notable because:
development is a social process
zone of proximal development - range of performance
Ivan Pavlov was notable because:
classical conditioning (dogs)
John Watsonn was notable because:
showed Pavlov's classical conditioning worked on humans
B.F. Skinner was notable because:
Albert Bandura was notable because:
learning results from observing behavior from other people
social cognitive theory
Konrad Lorenz was notable because:
studies behavior in natural environment
Urie Bronfenbrenner was notable because:
humans are embedded in a series environmental systems that interact with each other
What are the gene-environment correlations and who developed them?
passive - decreases after infancy
evocative - children's genotypes evoke a reaction from the environment
active - children's genotypes influence the kinds of environments they actively seek out
Developed by Scarr & McCartney
What is heritability?
Fraction of the variance of a trait in a population that is attributed to genetics.
Applies only to populations, not individuals, and to the particular population being studied.
Can estimate contributions of genetics, shared environment, and non-shared environment.
What the development patterns in infants?
Cephalocaudal - head to foot
Proximodistal - inside to outside
What are some of the reflexive motor skills in infants?
babinski (toes spread and curl)
What are the stages of sensorimotor development?
primary circular - action & response involve only baby's body
secondary circular - baby gets response from person/object and repeat behavior
coordination of secondary circular
tertiary circular - trying different methods for same result
internalization of schemes
What is violation of expectancy?
procedure used to study infant cognition in which they are shown an event that should evoke surprise/interest if it violates something the infant knows/assumes to be true
What the stages of language development?
What the stages of attachment?
undiscriminating social responsiveness - birth - 2/3 mo.
discriminating social responsiveness - 2/3 - 6/7 mo.
active proximity seeking - 6/7 mo. - 2 yrs.
goal-directed partnership - 2 yrs. +
Harry Harlow was notable because:
studied monkeys separated/isolated from mothers
What the types of attachment?
What factor that influence attachment?
quality of caregiver behaviors
type of substitute care
events in parents/child's life