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What are the characteristics of life-span perspective?
- plastic (malleable)
- characterized by growth, maintenance, and regulation
What are the different conceptions of age?
- chronological age
- biological (health)
- psychological age
- social age
What are the different approaches to reasearch time spans?
- cross-sectional - groups are taken at same time
- longitudinal - groups are followed over time
- sequential - combines cross-sectional and longitudinal
What is the cohort effect?
When there are individuals in a study group who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience.
Associate developmental theories with the scientist.
- Psychoanalytic: Freud and Erikson
- Cognitive: Piaget
- Sociocultural Cognitive: Vygotsky
- Behaviorial: Pavlov, Watson, Skinner
- Social Cognitive: Bandura
- Ethological: Lorenz
- Ecological: Brofenbrenner
Sigmund Freud was notable because:
- Id, ego, superego
- Stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
- everything based aroung libido
- when conflict is not resolved, fixation results
Erikson was notable because:
- Stages: trust/mistrust, autonomy/shame & doubt, initiative/guilt, industry/inferiority, indentity/identity confusion, intimacy/isolation, generativity/stagnation, integrity/despair
- positive view on human development
Piaget was notable because:
- observed own children to form theories
- children are "little scientists"
- assimilation and accomodation
- Stages: sensorimotor, preoperational , concrete operations, formal operations
Lev Vygotsky was notable because:
- development is a social process
- zone of proximal development - range of performance
Ivan Pavlov was notable because:
classical conditioning (dogs)
John Watsonn was notable because:
showed Pavlov's classical conditioning worked on humans
B.F. Skinner was notable because:
Albert Bandura was notable because:
- learning results from observing behavior from other people
- social cognitive theory
Konrad Lorenz was notable because:
- Ethological Theory
- studies behavior in natural environment
Urie Bronfenbrenner was notable because:
- humans are embedded in a series environmental systems that interact with each other
- bullseye model
What are the gene-environment correlations and who developed them?
- passive - decreases after infancy
- evocative - children's genotypes evoke a reaction from the environment
- active - children's genotypes influence the kinds of environments they actively seek out
Developed by Scarr & McCartney
What is heritability?
- Fraction of the variance of a trait in a population that is attributed to genetics.
- Applies only to populations, not individuals, and to the particular population being studied.
- Can estimate contributions of genetics, shared environment, and non-shared environment.
What the development patterns in infants?
- Cephalocaudal - head to foot
- Proximodistal - inside to outside
What are some of the reflexive motor skills in infants?
- gallant (swim)
- moro (startle)
- babinski (toes spread and curl)
What are the stages of sensorimotor development?
- simple reflexes
- primary circular - action & response involve only baby's body
- secondary circular - baby gets response from person/object and repeat behavior
- coordination of secondary circular
- tertiary circular - trying different methods for same result
- internalization of schemes
What is violation of expectancy?
procedure used to study infant cognition in which they are shown an event that should evoke surprise/interest if it violates something the infant knows/assumes to be true
What the stages of language development?
- first words
- two-word utterances
- telegraphic speech
What the stages of attachment?
- undiscriminating social responsiveness - birth - 2/3 mo.
- discriminating social responsiveness - 2/3 - 6/7 mo.
- active proximity seeking - 6/7 mo. - 2 yrs.
- goal-directed partnership - 2 yrs. +
Harry Harlow was notable because:
studied monkeys separated/isolated from mothers
What the types of attachment?
- insecure resistant
- insecure avoidant
- insecure disorganized
What factor that influence attachment?
- quality of caregiver behaviors
- type of substitute care
- infant behaviors
- events in parents/child's life
Chess and Thomas are notable because:
child temperament: easy, difficult, slow to warm up
Rothbart and Bates are notable because:
new child temperament classification: positive affect/approach, negative affectivity, effortful control