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Cardiac output
C.O. = Stroke Volume X Heart Rate

Blood vessel branching
n=VinAin/VoutAout

Shear in blood flow
 Assume laminar, steady flow
 tau = dp/dx*r/2

Velocity in blood flow
 Assume laminar, steady flow
 Newtonian fluid
 V(r) = (1/4mu)*(dp/dx)*(R^2r^2)

Poiseuille's Law
 Assume laminar, steady flow
 Newtonian fluid
 dp/dx = Q(8mu/piR^4)

Windkessel Analysis
 Assume arteries are pascal chambers
 Pressure is same throughout
 Instantaneous change
 Q(t) = kexp(t/rc)+Qheart
 P(t) = kRexp(t/rc)+QRheart

Pulse propagation
 Distensibility (Inverse of stiffness)
 D = 2r/Et
 c=sqrt(Et/2rrho) (rho of the walls)

Reflection at junctions
 P = Q(rho*c/A)
 Impedance (z)= (rho*c/A)
 Admittance (a) = 1/z
Pr/Pi = ao(a1+a2)/(a0+a1+a2)

