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What are the 5 major functions of bones?
Support, Protection, Storage, Movement, and Blood Cell Formation ( hematopoeisis).
What is the Axial Skeleton?
Bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body – Skull, Ribcage, Spine.
What is a appendicular skeleton?
The appendages, or limbs.
What is hematopoesis?
Blood cell formation in bone marrow.
What are the 8 parts of a long bone?
- -Diaphysis: Shaft, composed of compact bone
- -Epiphysis: Ends. Spongy bone surrounded by compact bone
- -Periosteum: Fibrous protective membrane that covers the diaphysis
- -Perforating fibers: Connective tissue fibers that attach periosteum to bone
- -Articular cartilage: Glassy, smooth hyaline cartilage layer that covers the epiphysis. Helps reduce friction
- -Medullary canal: Canal in the center of the bone
- Adults: Fat storage (yellow marrow)
- Infants : Filled with red marrow (makes blood cells)
- -Epiphyseal line: Remnant of the epiphyseal plate
- -Epiphyseal plate: Flat plate of hyaline cartilage. Site of the lengthwise growth of bone
What is this?
What are long bones?
- 1) Longer than they are wide
- 2) Have a long piece with larger heads at each end
- 3) Made mostly of compact bone, except for the heads
- 4) All bones of the limbs, except the ankles and the wrists
What are short bones?
- Short Bones
- 1) Cube shaped
- 2) Contain mostly spongy bone
- 3) Wrist, ankle, and patella
What is a Sesamoid Bone?
A bone that forms within tendons (e.g. Kneecap)
What is a flat bone?
- 1) Thin, flattened and curved
- 2) Composed of spongy bone sandwiched between two layers of compact bone
- 3) Bones of the skull, ribs, and sternum
What is a irregular bone?
An irregular bone is a bone that doesnt fall into any of the other catagories.
what is an osteoBlast?
osteoBlast Build Bone.
What is a osteoclast?
They destroy bone to release minerals.
What is appositional growth?
This is how bones widen as they grow longer
What is Rickets?
- Rickets is a disease in children in which the bones fail to calcify and harden due to a lack of calcium and/or vitamin D
- -Can be recognized by bowed legs
What are synarthroses joints.
They are immovable joints.
What are amphiarthroses joints?
They are slightly movable joints.
What are diarthroses joints?
They are movable joints.
What are syndesomosome joints.
Slightly movable joints (e.g. Tib/ Fib)
What are CARTILAGinious joints?
They are cushioned with cartilage (e.g. the vertebrae)
What are Fibrous Joints?
Bones held together with fibrous tissue (e.g. the skull)
What are synovial joints?
They contain fluid (e.g. all joints in limbs)
What is the Bursa?
A fluid filled sac that cushions joints.
What are non axial joints?
Joints with no rotation around the axis, plane joints.
What are plane joints?
Flat surfaces (e.g. the wrist)
What is a uniaxil joint?
Allow movement in only one axis (e.g. A hinge joint).
What is a hinge joint?
Cylindrical end of bone fits into a trough shaped surface on another bone (e.g. the elbow).
What is abduction?
Movment away from the body.
What is adduction?
Movment toward the body.
What is a pivot joint?
The rounded end of one bone fits into a sleeve or ring of another bone (e.g. proximal radioulnar joint).
What is a ball and socket joint?
Spherical head of one bone fits into a round socket on the other bone (e.g. Hip or shoulder).
What is a biaxial joint?
Can move side to side and back and forth (e.g. sadel joint).
What is a multiaxial joint?
Allows full range of motion (e.g. ball and socket).
What is flexion?
Movement that decreases the angle, bending.
What is extension?
Increases the angle, straighting.
What are the 6 types of fractions?
- Comminuted- the bone breakes into many fragments. Compression- the bone is crushed.Depressed- part of the bone is depressed.Impacted- forced together, occures with a fall.Spiral- excessive twisting.Greenstick- bent but not broken, occures in children when the bone is not fully developed.
What are the parts of an osteon?
- •Osteocytes – Mature bone cells found in the lacunae
- •Lacunae - Tiny cavities in bone matrix that contain osteocytes
- •Lamellae – Circles in the bone tissue that contain the lacunae – Look like tree rings
- •Haversian canal – Canal in the middle of the osteon – Allows neurovascular bundles to pass through