Biomechanics I final.txt
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How many degrees is the longitudinal axis of the MTJ from transverse and sagittal?
What plane is perpendicular to the MTJ?
What is the maximum ROM for the longitudinal axis of the MTJ?
What is the minimum ROM for the longitudinal axis of the MTJ?
What is the ROM for the oblique axis of the MTJ?
How do the sagittal and transverse planes of the MTJ function together?
What decreases MTJ ROM, supination or pronation?
Does MTJ ROM increase or decrease with supination?
decrease (increase with pronation)
What is complete/partial compensation?
- Complete: Forefoot on ground
- Partial: Forefoot not on ground
At what degree will the STJ compensate to the end of its motion?
>3 degrees RF valgus/FF varus
How do you compensate for FF valgus and Plantarflexed 1st Ray?
- LA SOS
- -Long Axis MTJ
- -Oblique Axis MTJ
What is apropulsive gait?
When the STJ stays pronated due to FF varus so it does not supinate for good propulsion
In FF Varus complete compensation, where do you see the callus?
2nd met head
In FF Varus partial compensation, where do you see the callus?
4 & 5 met heads
In FF valgus with compensation, wehre do you see the callus?
1 & 5
What happens to the 1st Ray motion with Pronation/Supination?
- Pro: increased motion
- Sup: decreased motion
Does the 1st ray evert or invert during plantarflexion?
Everts ( during propulsive phase)
What is the pathology caused in propulsion if you can't supinate the 1st ray?
- Apropulsive gait
- Hypermobility and subluxation
What is the shared theme for compensation b/t FF valgus and 1st ray ROM?
What is the difference b/t 1st ray in a plantarflexed 1st ray and FF valgus?
- Plantarflexed = abnormal 1st ray motion
- FF valgus= normal 1st ray motion
What is metatarsus primus elevatus?
- 1st ray dorsiflexed
- callus above 1st met head on dorsal side of foot
What type of axial motion does the 5th ray have?
What are the two axes and their associated movements of the 5th ray?
- Transverse: dorsiflex/plantarflex
- Vertical: abduct/adduct
How many degrees of 1st ray dorsiflexion are required for normal gait?
What is the measurement for normal vertical displacement during gait?
What do the high/low points represent on a gait chart?
- High: midstance and swing
- Low: Double limb support
- **(2 of each)
What is normal ankle dorsiflexion?
T/F: The toes bear weight durig contact and midstance
What are the degrees for normal angle/base of gait?
- Angle: 7-10 degrees
- Bae: 1-2 inches
What are normal degrees for NCSP?
What does NCSP tell us?
- Rearfoot deformity (varus or valgus)
- ***Varus is most common
What are normal degrees of tibial influence?
1-4 degrees tibial varum
At what degree is RF valgus normal?
less than 3 degrees
What degrees reach cause maximum RF valgus?
At what degree will RF valgus evert past max?
What is tarsal coalition?
When two bones fuse together
What is Hypermobility?
- When there is STJ pronation during the propulsion phase
- (there should be supination)
Is the lateral malleolus smaller/larger and does it extend anterior/posterior?
What type of axis exists in the ankle joint?
Oblique to all three planes
In OKC, how many degrees of transverse plane motion are available?
How many degrees of trans motion available in ankle joint at CKC?
What four muscles resist excessive dorsiflexion?
PT, FDL, FHL, PL (fibularis tertius)
What three muscles help resist plantarflexion?
EDL, EHL, TA
What muscle is the main dorsiflexor?
What is a pedorthist?
fits and fabricates shoes, prostheses and accomodative orthoses
What is the job of a CO?
- ***Certified orthotist
- orthoses, including braces, to fix problems
What is the job of a CP?
- ***certified prosthetist
- Make artificial limbs
What is the job of a certified prescription foot orthotic lab?
-make functional and accomodative foot orthoses, AFOs, foot fillers
What three materials are used for an athletic orthesis?
What two materials are used for a dress orthosis?
Which material is used mainly for comfort and pressure relief, polypropylene or plastazote?
What are three rearfoot post materials in order of hardness?
- Crepe (EVA)
- Cork (breakdown over time)
What is the strongest topcover orthosis material?
Which is stronger a milled FFO or pressed FFO and why?
- thinner and the striations make it stronger
What are two reasons to use a neutral shoe?
- Under pronators
- high arch feet
What are two reasons to use a stability shoe?
- Mild pronator
- normal/low arch
What are two reasons to use a stability plus shoe?
- moderate pronation
- normal/low arch
When do you use a motion control shoe?
What are the three rules of shoe consideration?
- 1) Where shoe bends: at ball
- 2) heel counter: more=stable, less= comfort
- 3) torque: more = comfort, less = stable
Can you ever evert the FF?
- ***against theorem 5 (only inversion)
What is the FF response w/rearfoot varus/valgus?
What is the RF response to FF eversion/inversion?
- **unless maxed then the RF follows
What is normal compensation?
When the body, trunk move in a different direction or weird terrain is encountered.
What is abnormal compensation?
Due to abnormal structure/function of lower extremity
How are normal and abnormal comp. accomplished?
What is the max degree of inversion of the LAMTJ?
What is the max degree of supination of the STJ?
What would you like to do?
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