# Biomechanics I final.txt

 The flashcards below were created by user kepling on FreezingBlue Flashcards. How many degrees is the longitudinal axis of the MTJ from transverse and sagittal? T = 15S = 8-9 What plane is perpendicular to the MTJ? Frontal (inversion/eversion) What is the maximum ROM for the longitudinal axis of the MTJ? 8 degrees What is the minimum ROM for the longitudinal axis of the MTJ? 4-6 degrees What is the ROM for the oblique axis of the MTJ? 22 degrees How do the sagittal and transverse planes of the MTJ function together? Dorsiflexion/abductionPlantarflexion/adduction What decreases MTJ ROM, supination or pronation? Supination Does MTJ ROM increase or decrease with supination? decrease (increase with pronation) What is complete/partial compensation? Complete: Forefoot on groundPartial: Forefoot not on ground At what degree will the STJ compensate to the end of its motion? >3 degrees RF valgus/FF varus How do you compensate for FF valgus and Plantarflexed 1st Ray? LA SOS-Long Axis MTJ-STJ-Oblique Axis MTJ-STJ What is apropulsive gait? When the STJ stays pronated due to FF varus so it does not supinate for good propulsion In FF Varus complete compensation, where do you see the callus? 2nd met head In FF Varus partial compensation, where do you see the callus? 4 & 5 met heads In FF valgus with compensation, wehre do you see the callus? 1 & 5 What happens to the 1st Ray motion with Pronation/Supination? Pro: increased motionSup: decreased motion Does the 1st ray evert or invert during plantarflexion? Everts ( during propulsive phase) What is the pathology caused in propulsion if you can't supinate the 1st ray? Apropulsive gaitHypermobility and subluxation What is the shared theme for compensation b/t FF valgus and 1st ray ROM? LA SOS What is the difference b/t 1st ray in a plantarflexed 1st ray and FF valgus? Plantarflexed = abnormal 1st ray motionFF valgus= normal 1st ray motion What is metatarsus primus elevatus? 1st ray dorsiflexedcallus above 1st met head on dorsal side of foot What type of axial motion does the 5th ray have? Triplanar motion What are the two axes and their associated movements of the 5th ray? Transverse: dorsiflex/plantarflexVertical: abduct/adduct How many degrees of 1st ray dorsiflexion are required for normal gait? 65 What is the measurement for normal vertical displacement during gait? 2-5 cm What do the high/low points represent on a gait chart? High: midstance and swingLow: Double limb support**(2 of each) What is normal ankle dorsiflexion? 10 degrees T/F: The toes bear weight durig contact and midstance False What are the degrees for normal angle/base of gait? Angle: 7-10 degreesBae: 1-2 inches What are normal degrees for NCSP? 0-4 degrees What does NCSP tell us? Rearfoot deformity (varus or valgus)***Varus is most common What are normal degrees of tibial influence? 1-4 degrees tibial varum At what degree is RF valgus normal? less than 3 degrees What degrees reach cause maximum RF valgus? 3-10 degrees At what degree will RF valgus evert past max? >10 degrees What is tarsal coalition? When two bones fuse together What is Hypermobility? When there is STJ pronation during the propulsion phase(there should be supination) Is the lateral malleolus smaller/larger and does it extend anterior/posterior? LargerPosterior What type of axis exists in the ankle joint? Oblique to all three planes In OKC, how many degrees of transverse plane motion are available? 26.5 How many degrees of trans motion available in ankle joint at CKC? 8.4 degrees What four muscles resist excessive dorsiflexion? PT, FDL, FHL, PL (fibularis tertius) What three muscles help resist plantarflexion? EDL, EHL, TA What muscle is the main dorsiflexor? EHL What is a pedorthist? fits and fabricates shoes, prostheses and accomodative orthoses What is the job of a CO? ***Certified orthotistorthoses, including braces, to fix problems What is the job of a CP? ***certified prosthetistMake artificial limbs What is the job of a certified prescription foot orthotic lab? -make functional and accomodative foot orthoses, AFOs, foot fillers What three materials are used for an athletic orthesis? Polypropylenepolyethylenefiberglass What two materials are used for a dress orthosis? Graphitefiberglass Which material is used mainly for comfort and pressure relief, polypropylene or plastazote? Plastazote What are three rearfoot post materials in order of hardness? PolypropyleneCrepe (EVA)Cork (breakdown over time) What is the strongest topcover orthosis material? Neolon (Spenco) Which is stronger a milled FFO or pressed FFO and why? Milledthinner and the striations make it stronger What are two reasons to use a neutral shoe? Under pronatorshigh arch feet What are two reasons to use a stability shoe? Mild pronatornormal/low arch What are two reasons to use a stability plus shoe? moderate pronationnormal/low arch When do you use a motion control shoe? Extreme over-pronation What are the three rules of shoe consideration? 1) Where shoe bends: at ball2) heel counter: more=stable, less= comfort3) torque: more = comfort, less = stable Can you ever evert the FF? No***against theorem 5 (only inversion) What is the FF response w/rearfoot varus/valgus? inversion What is the RF response to FF eversion/inversion? Nothing**unless maxed then the RF follows What is normal compensation? When the body, trunk move in a different direction or weird terrain is encountered. What is abnormal compensation? Due to abnormal structure/function of lower extremity How are normal and abnormal comp. accomplished? Pro/supination What is the max degree of inversion of the LAMTJ? 7 degrees What is the max degree of supination of the STJ? 4 degrees Authorkepling ID65595 Card SetBiomechanics I final.txt DescriptionBiomechanics I final Updated2011-02-15T23:32:49Z Show Answers