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What was Andreas Vealius known for?
Study of human anatomy
What was William Gilbert known for?
He researched properties of magnetism.
What was Francis Bacon known for?
Coming up with the scientific method
What was William Harvey known for?
Circulation and blood flow
What was Nicholas Copernicus known for?
Heliocentric model of the universe
What was Martin Luther most bothered by and how did he respond?
He was bothered most by the selling of indulgences. He responded by writing the 95 thesis.
What were the 3 main things Martin Luther objected to?
- 1. Transubstantiation
- 2. Original Sin
- 3. Lack of hope in religion
Protestantism emphasized the sole importance of:
The word, both sung and spoken.
The council of Trent reaffirmed what things? (7)
- 1. Celibacy for priests
- 2. Transubstantiation
- 3. Apostolic succession
- 4. Doctrine of purgatory
- 5. Importance of sacraments
- 6. Veneration of saints
- 7. Importance of apocrypha
What is another name for the 'Society of Jesus'
Who was the leader of the Jesuits?
What is one word you could use to describe the Jesuits?
What qualities were the Jesuits picked by?
Who or what were the Jesuits extremely loyal to?
The Pope and Catholic doctrines.
What were the Calvinists known for?
What were the Anabaptists known for? (2)
- Adult Baptism
- Pacifists (didn't go to war)
What were the two main elements of teh Act of Supremacy?
- Separation of the English Church from the Church in Rome.
- The King of England became the authority for the English Church.
What are two qualities/beliefs of Humanism?
- Interest in antiquity - Greek texts.
- Human nature is ultimately good and educable. (Learning improved man, even secular learning)
What are two qualities/beleifts of the Reformers?
- Belief that truth only comes from the bible.
- Human nature is ultimately fallen, but saved by grace was a must.
What kind of monarch was Louis XIV in France?
Absolute monarch (what he said went)
How did Louis XIV become an absolute monarch? (2)
- Centralized his power in Versailles.
- Established academies.
What were the 4 academies that Louis XIV set up?
- Language and Literature
- Sculpture and painting
What 3 things did we cover with Castiglione?
- Uomo Universale
- He described the ideal courtier
What is Uomo Universale
Well rounded, universal man
What is Sprezzatura?
- Effortless mastery
What are 4 things that were mentioned about Montaigne's approach?
- Studies himself
- questions human nature
- Non dogmatic in approach
- Cultural relativism
What is Descartes 4 step process?
- Never accept any idea as true which is not so clearly true beyond being doubted
- Divide each complex question into simple ones.
- Order thoughts from simplest to most complex.
- Review series of inferences to make sure there are no breaks or false links in the chain.
Did Descartes believe you could use your senses to conclude the "thingness" of a thing?
No, senses can betray.
Is comedy intellectual of emotional?
True or false:
Comedy requires detachment from scene, world of trivial values where there is no consequence for action.
What is low comedy?
- Comedy of situation.
- Ex: Laughing because the chair got pulled out from under someone.
What is high comedy?
- Comedy of character.
- Ex: Laughing at the boy who got the chair pulled out.
Is tragedy emotional or intellectual?
True or False:
Tragedy demands a sense of inevitability. World where deeds bring consequeces and values triumph.
What is a low tragedy (melodrama)?
Tragedy of situation
What is a high tragedy?
tragedy of character
What are the 5 parts of the Pyramid of Action?
- Rising Action
- Crisis (Turning point)
- Falling Action
What was composer Josquin des Pres known for?
4 part motet
Was was composer Palestrina known for?
- Wrote over 100 masses
- Incorporated Gregorian chants
What was composer William Byrd known for?
Writing secret masses for people who didn't follow the Church of England.
What are 2 additins of venetian music?
- Split choirs
- Addition of intruments
What was the center for Roman music?
What type of singing took place in the Sistine Chapel?
Give 2 details about "the boke of common praier noted"
- It was simple, intelligible, one note per syllable.
- It was for the common man.
What are the 2 aspects of Concerto Grosso?
- 3 Movements: Fast, slow, fast
- Alternating group of soloists and full orchestra.
What is a Fugue in music?
Theme that is passed from voice to voice creating polyphony.
What does Homophonic mean?
Voices blended together, notes moving together in chords.
What does Polyphonic mean?
Counterpoint, voices moving against each other.
What type of musical performance combines the arts of solo and choral singing, declamation, acting and dancing in a staged spectacle?
What is word painting?
For any writing there is a specific type of music that would represent the writing properly.
What is an Oratorio?
- Unstaged religious conterpart of secular opera.
- Ex: Handel's Messiah
What does Recitative mean?
- The free declamation of a single vocal line with simple instrumental accompaniment for support.
- The style of delivery mimics speech.
- Words were more important than music though instrumentation was important.
What is a Cantata?
A piece of music that is sung not played.
What is a Sonata?
A piece of music that is played; an extended instrumental composition.
What is a Pavane?
A formal processional dance.
What is a Galliard?
A lively jumping dance, in which 5 steps are set in a 6 beat measure.
In southern Italian art, what was the medium of choice?
Fresco, becaue it dries fast.
In association with Fresco what did "disegno" mean?
Careful drafting and outlining of figures/
In northern Italian art, what was the medium of choice?
In association with oil paint, what does "colorito" mean?
More vibrant colors, easier to show light and dark.
What is Relief Technique?
- The image sticks out from the stencil, like a stamp.
- Ex: Woodcut, Letter Press
What is Intaglio Technique?
- The image is engraved into the stencil.
- Allows for finelines and details.
- Ex: Etching, dry point, engraving.
During the reformation how much religious art was produced?
During the Counter Reformation how much religious art was produced?
- The catholic church patronized art to promote doctrine/agenda.
Which 2 groups had most of the Aristocratic Baroque style art produced?
- Bourgeoisie in Norther Europe (Holland)
What are 6 elements of High Renaissance Art?
- Clarity of line
- Geometric shapes and mathmatic precision
- Realistic depiction of natural world
- Use of textures
- Emphasis on psychological state of figures
- Uncluttered arrangement of figures
What are the 6 keys to identifying a Mannerism work of art?
- Content: abnormal, uncontrolled, emotional, strange.
- Narrative: ellaborative, unclear.
- Space: disjointed, limited to foreground.
- Proportions: un-canonical, usually attenuated.
- Figures: tensely posed, confined, over extended.
- Colors: contrasting, surprising.
What are 6 elements of Baroque art?
- Dynamic movement.
- Spirals, ovals, curves.
- Open ended, spilled beyond canvas.
- Grand gestures.
Where was the Bergeoise style art based out of?
Where did the patronage come from?
- Norther Europe - Holland
- Patronage came form Bourgeoisie families because there were only protestant churches and no aristocracy.
What are 4 types of Bergeois style paintings?
- Still life (could show pre destination)
- Genre paintings
- Corporation pictures
- Landscape paintings
What were 5 motives for patronage in art?
- Pay back money earned from usury.
- Memorialize family name.
- Promote civic pride.
- Reflect power of institutions.