Basic math principles

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Author:
b.redsangria
ID:
6564
Filename:
Basic math principles
Updated:
2010-03-06 14:04:44
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definitions
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Description:
basic math
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  1. Integers
    • - Whole number
    • - positive or negative
    • - 0 is an integer (neither positive or neg)

    *does not include fractions
  2. Consecutive Integers
    Listed in increasing size w/o any integers missing in between

    • Formula:
    • n, n+1, n+2, n+3, etc...

    Even: -2, 0,2,4,6,8

    Odd: -3, -1, 1, 3, 5
  3. Distinct
    mathematical way of saying "different"

    • ex. Count the distinct prime factors of 12 = 2 and 3
    • 12 = 2 x 2 x 3 (can only count 2 once)
  4. Digits
    Ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

    All digits are integers

    Most likely: count digits or supply the missing digits
  5. Prime numbers
    Divided evenly only by itself and i

    All prime number are positive
  6. Positive & Negative
    • Multiplication
    • pos x pos = pos

    pos x neg = neg

    neg x neg = pos

    • Addition
    • pos + neg = 4 + (-3) = 1

    neg + neg = -3 + -5 = -8 (treat it like pos)
  7. Odd & Even
    • Even - divided by 2
    • ~ 0 is considered even

    Odd - can not be divided evenly by 2

    • even x even = even
    • odd x odd = odd
    • even x odd = even

    • even + even = even
    • odd + odd = even
    • even + odd = odd
  8. Prime number
    - positive integer that can be divided evenly only by two distinct factors: 1 and itself

    - neither 1 or 0 is prime

    - all primes are positve
  9. Factors and Multiples
    "Factors are few; multiples are many"

    • Factor - divided evenly into a number
    • Multiple - result of a number mutiplying another

    • Example:
    • Factors of 15 = 1, 3, 5, 15
    • Multiple = 15 is a multiple of 3; 12 is a multiple of 3
  10. Absolute Value
    distance between the number and 0
  11. Divisibility Rules
    Useful divisibility shortcuts:

    2 - unit digit can be divided evenly by 2

    3 - sum of digits can be divided by 3 easily

    4 - the last two digits of the number can be divided by 4

    5 - final digit is either 0 or 5

    6 - if it divisible by both 2 and 3

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