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What are Present Adverbial Participles built on?
Present Tense Verb Stem
What kind of action do Present Adverbial Participles describe?
In Present Adverbial Participles, what does the action relate to?
Action relates to the action of the main verb
What 2 kind of relations do most Present Adverbial Participles define?
temporal relations ("while")
casual relations ("because")
What de Present Adverbial Participles have to agree with and in what?
Must agree with its "subject"
in case, number, and gender
Present Adverbial Particples are always what?
What are the 3 Morphemes?
In Participle Case Endings what do the third declension case endings follow?
the morpheme (vt) in the M and N active participle
In Participle Case Endings, what do the second declension case endings follow?
the morpheme (mev) in the M and N middle participle
In Participle Case Endings, what do the First Declension case endings follow?
the morpheme in all F participles
What is the Present Middle/Passive Paradigm of Luw singular
What is the Present Middle-Passive Paradigm for Luo Plural?
Contract verbs form the participle by connecting with which vowel?
o (omicron) just as in the indicative
What are the 4 questions you should ask before attempting to translate any participle?
1 What is the aspect (based on tense)?
2 What is the voice?
3 What is the meaning (based on lexical form, case, number, and gender)?
4 What is the function in the sentence?
What is the basic translation for the present participle
ending in -ing in English
How are most adverbial participles best translated?
as temporal or causal clauses
While indicative verbs indicate absolute time, what do temporal participles indicate?
relative time, i.e. time relative to that of the verb.
What is it called when the present participle indicates an action taking place at the same time as that of the verb?
What does the English translation for a present temporal participle use to indicate contemporaneous time?