part 1 and 2 (preparation for multiple choice, matching, and truefalse questions)
...in war time, media can become a lapdog rather than a watchdog (over government) and political elites often distort or even fabricate information (____or____)
during crisis or war
(_____) Americans initially tend to overwhelmingly support the president in whatever action he takes
during national emergencies
Pentagon Papers (published in ___) revealed systematic government lying about US war aims and strategies (during the years of the ____ war)
As a result, __ times in American history the winning presidential candidate actually received fewer votes than his opponent
As a result, four times in American history (__, __, __, __) the winning presidential candidate actually received fewer votes than his opponent
1824, 1876, 1888, 2000
The electoral college gives disproportionate influence to __,___ states over ___,___ states
Each New York electoral vote represents 550,000 people, but each South Dakota electoral vote represents only ___ people
__ are small groups of people who possess extraordinary amounts of power... (and) dominate many political systems-including communist, aristocratic, and even formally democratic ones
The thesis of The Democratic Debate is?
American politics is characterized by a fundamental conflict between elite democracy and popular democracy
____ is a political system in which elites acquire power by a free and fair competition for the people's votes
Popular democracy has its roots in ___, in which all citizens gather in one place to vote on important matters
_____ can be defined as a political system in which the people are involved as much as possible in making the decisions that affect their lives.
It is crucial to recognize that popular democracy is not the same as ___
the ____, the supporters of the Constitution in the late 1780s, were the founders of elite democracy in the US
The original Constitution placed severe limits on ___ and contained many _____; neither the president nor senators, for example, were to be elected directly by the people.
majority rule.. elitist elements
In the original constitution, senators were chosen by ___ and presidents were elected by an __, the Electoral College, appointed under procedures chosen by the state legislatures.
state legislatures.. elite
____ were founders of popular democracy in the US.. (they) denounced the proposed Constitution as a betrayal of the democratic spirit of 1776 and the American Revolution itself
In 1791, the first ten amendments-the bill of rights- were added, mostly at the insistence of the ___, who wanted to ensure protection of their political rights
In 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton used the language of the ______ to write a women's declaration of independence. Her Declaration of ____ is considered the founding document of the women's rights movement, which won the right to vote in 1920 and flowered into a modern feminist movement in the 1960s.
Declaration of Independence... Sentiments
In the 1950s and 1960s, Martin Luther King Jr. used the popular democratic language of ____ to energize the civil rights movement and appeal successfully to a broad white audience
rights and equality
In the late nineteenth century, a popular democratic movement called ___ emerged, challenging the control of corporate elites over the economy.
In the crucial election of ___, popular candidate, William Jennings Bryan, was defeated by the candidate of big business, William McKinley.
With exception of an education, largely white male elite, most people are uninterested in politics and uniformed about issues; most people are more interested in their own private lives than in politics. is this elite or popular democracy?
When the masses do get involved in politics, they tend to be highly emotional and intolerant; the main threat to democracy comes from the masses, not from elites. Is this elite or popular democracy?
People are naturally inclined to participate in the decisions that affect their lives; if they don't participate, something must be wrong with the democratic system. Is this elite or popular democracy?
Through democratic participation people can overcome their parochial interests and become public-spirited citizens. When their powers and privileges are threatened, elites often respond by curtailing democracy; the main threat to democracy comes from selfish elites, not from ordinary citizens. Is this elite or popular democracy?
Democracy basically means free and fair elections in which elites acquire the power to rule by competing for people's votes. Is this elite or popular democracy?
Democracy means more than fair elections; it means the participation of ordinary citizens in the decisions that affect their lives in an atmosphere of tolerance and trust. Is this elite or popular democracy?
What Article of the Constitution grants seventeen explicit power to Congress?
What Article of the Constitution establishes the office of the president?
What Article of the Constitution vests the judicial power in a Supreme Court and in lower courts to be established by Congress?
What Article in the Constitution governs relationships between the states?
What Article of the Constitution establishes two methods for proposing and two methods for ratifying amendments to the Constitution?
What Article of the Constitution says the Constitution and the laws and treaties made pursuant to its authority are the "supreme law of the land.."
What article of the Constitution states ratification by conventions of nine states establishes the Constitution as the new national authority?
Monarchy itself, Pain thundered, was a crime; if we could trace the origins of kings, he wrote, "we should find the first of them nothing better than ______"
the principal ruffian of some restless gang
In a ____, the individual units remain sovereign, so each state had supreme power within its border.
They petitioned for "___" to postpone foreclosures
[and] "__" to allow payment of debts and taxes in agricultural commodities
They were troubled that the majority of the state governments, with their strong legislatures and weak executives, were responding to ____
____, introduced on May 29 by that state's governor, Edmund Randolph, but principally the handiwork of James Madison. Where the Articles of Confederation had been based on the sovereignty of the states, the __ made national government primary and reduced the states to a subordinate position. It envisioned the US as a large republic-the kind of centralized political order that the American revolutionaries had opposed as inconsistent with liberty.
On Jun 15 they countered with an alternative framework, introduced by William Paterson of ____ and thus known as the _____. The Plan was essentially a reform of the Articles of Confederation rather than a wholly new constitutional order
New Jersey Plan
The provision that most strongly indicated how authority was to be shifted from the state governments to the national government was one crafted by____ that empowered the national legislature to veto state legislation
The ______ was seen as the most democratic part of the new system- and for that very reason the part most feared and constrained
House of Representatives
The idea of "___" - that federal courts have the authority to judge a law by the standard of the Constitution and to declare it null and void should be found incompatible - was not stated in the Constitution but was discussed by the delegates
The new _____ was designed to make property far more secure than it had under the state constitutions
Delegates from___ and ___ insisted that slavery was indispensable to their economies and repeatedly warned the convention that if slavery was not given special protection, their states would not join the Union.
S. Carolina & Georgia
The ______ largely reversed the political verdict of 1776 by ending the revolutionary experiment in state-based popular democracy.
Constitution of 1787
The Constitution drafted ____ at Philadelphia in 1787 gave only limited recognition to civil liberties and civil rights. Provisions were incorporated to guarantee individuals the right of habeas corpus (persons placed under arrest must be promptly brought before a judge), except under dangerous circumstances of insurrection or invasion, and to prohibit the federal government from passing bill so f attainder (laws that inflict punishment on individuals without trials) or ex post factor laws (laws that make an act committed in the past a punishable offense)
The Bill of Rights
As George Washington's Secretary of Treasury, __ issued a Report of Manufacturers in 1790, calling for extensive government subsidies. Of private industry.
Jefferson [actually, first Madison, but who notices] opposed Hamilton's scheme for promoting ____ not on economic grounds but on the ground that it would undermine American democracy
[For Jefferson] ____ also threatened to create extremes of wealth and poverty and to set in motion powerful centralizing tendencies that would draw power away from local communities where citizens could participate in day to day decisions
Mostly, the debate in the US has not been between advocates, government ownership of the means of production, on the one hand, and ___ on the other.
free market capitalism
the framers of the Constitution initially favored a ____ in which all significant powers would rest in the hands of the central government and state and local governments would derive their authority from the central government
All powers not given to the national government are ___ to the states by the tenth amendment
___ (article vi) states that national laws supersede state laws
Necessary and Proper/___ (article 1, section 8) that gave the national COngress the power "to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers"
In cases where both levels of government possess the power to act - so - called ____ state the constitutional authority granted to both the federal and state governments, such as the authority to tax.
Under dual federalism, the federal government has only those powers specifically granted in the Constitution, called ____, including the power to "regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states," "coin money," and "provide for the common defense"
Protection for the states, the Federalists argued, would come from the way that the new constitution divided power into two spheres, a theory that we have come to call ___. Under ___ the national government and the states each have separate spheres of authority, and "within their respective spheres the two centers of government are sovereign and hence equal"